The size and scope of microarray experiments continue to increase. However, datasets generated on different platforms or at different centres contain biases. Improved techniques are needed to remove platform- and batch-specific biases. One experimental control is the replicate hybridization of a subset of samples at each site or on each platform to learn the relationship between the two platforms. To date, no algorithm exists to specifically use this type of control. LTR is a linear-modelling-based algorithm that learns the relationship between different microarray batches from replicate hybridizations. LTR was tested on a new benchmark dataset of 20 samples hybridized to different Affymetrix microarray platforms. Before LTR, the two platforms were significantly different; application of LTR removed this bias. LTR was tested with six separate data pre-processing algorithms, and its effectiveness was independent of the pre-processing algorithm. Sample-size experiments indicate that just three replicate hybridizations can significantly reduce bias. An R library implementing LTR is available.
LTR: Linear Cross-Platform Integration of Microarray Data.
Prostate tumours are highly variable in their response to therapies, but clinically available prognostic factors can explain only a fraction of this heterogeneity. Here we analysed 200 whole-genome sequences and 277 additional whole-exome sequences from localized, non-indolent prostate tumours with similar clinical risk profiles, and carried out RNA and methylation analyses in a subset. These tumours had a paucity of clinically actionable single nucleotide variants, unlike those seen in metastatic disease. Rather, a significant proportion of tumours harboured recurrent non-coding aberrations, large-scale genomic rearrangements, and alterations in which an inversion repressed transcription within its boundaries. Local hypermutation events were frequent, and correlated with specific genomic profiles. Numerous molecular aberrations were prognostic for disease recurrence, including several DNA methylation events, and a signature comprised of these aberrations outperformed well-described prognostic biomarkers. We suggest that intensified treatment of genomically aggressive localized prostate cancer may improve cure rates.
Genomic hallmarks of localized, non-indolent prostate cancer.
Specimen partView Samples
Microarray analysis revealed that changes in genes expressions are brain region-dependent; expression of several genes are affected by point mutation L100P, which was verified by RT-PCR (Lcn2, Cyr61, Slc6a12, Slc40a1, Egr2), a few genes are affected by genotype and valproate (Dusp1 and Purb), suggesting their role in valproate-induced benificial effect on sensorimotor gaiting in Disc1-L100P mutant mice. The final conclusion will be drawn after series of RT-PCR confirmation.
Genetic and pharmacological evidence for schizophrenia-related Disc1 interaction with GSK-3.
Sex, Specimen part, CompoundView Samples
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that produces myriad toxicities in most mammals. In rodents alone, there is a huge divergence in the toxicological response across species, as well as among different strains within a species. But there are also significant differences between males and females animals of a single strain. These differences are inconsistent across model systems: the severity of toxicity is greater in female rats than males, while male mice and guinea pigs are more sensitive than females. Because the specific events that underlie this difference remain unclear, we characterized the hepatic transcriptional response of adult male and female C57BL/6 mice to 500g/kg TCDD at multiple time-points. The transcriptional profile diverged significantly between the sexes. Female mice demonstrated a large number of altered transcripts as early as 6h following treatment, suggesting a large primary response. Conversely, male animals showed the greatest TCDD-mediated response 144h following exposure, potentially implicating significant secondary responses. Nr1i3 was statistically significantly induced at all time-points in the sensitive male animals. This mRNA encodes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Surprisingly though, changes at the protein level (aside from the positive control, CYP1A1) were modest, with only FMO3 showing clear induction, and no genes with sex-differences. Thus, while male and female mice show transcriptional differences in their response to TCDD, their association with TCDD-induced toxicities remains unclear.
Sex-related differences in murine hepatic transcriptional and proteomic responses to TCDD.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates most of the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, TCDD toxicity phenotypes vary widely between species, strains and even between sexes within a strain. While the exact reasons for this variation remain unclear, it is thought to be related to differences in the structure of the AHR. Previous studies comparing the downstream effects of TCDD exposure between animals with different AHR isoforms have been confounded by the genetic differences between these model systems. To address this issue conclusively, we evaluated three transgenic mouse lines, each of which express a different rat AHR isoform (rWT, DEL, and INS) from two strains of rat with highly divergent TCDD-susceptibilities, within identical genetic backgrounds. Here we profile hepatic transcriptomic responses following exposure to TCDD, and use these to identify transcripts associated with toxicity. We have confirmed that the variation in toxicity is inherent to the AHR isoform. Additionally, we note the enhanced activity of the modified transactivation domain of the DEL isoform, relative to the INS isoform, and provide further evidence that the INS isoform is responsible for the high resistance to TCDD observed in H/W rats. We also uncover several candidate genes that were consistently differentially expressed in TCDD-sensitive mice and rats.
No associated publication
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Both a lack of biomarkers and relatively ineffective treatments constitute impediments to management of lupus nephritis (LN). Here we used gene expression microarrays to contrast the transcriptomic profiles of active SLE patients with and without LN to identify potential biomarkers for LN. RNA isolated from whole peripheral blood of active SLE patients was used for transcriptomic profiling and the data analyzed by linear modeling, with corrections for multiple testing. Results were validated in a second cohort of SLE patients, using NanoString technology. The majority of genes demonstrating altered mRNA abundance between patients with and without LN were neutrophil-related. Findings in the validation cohort confirmed this observation and showed that the levels of gene expression in renal remission were similar to active patients without LN. In secondary analyses, gene expression correlated with disease activity, hematuria and proteinuria, but not renal biopsy changes. As expression levels of the individual genes correlated strongly with each other, a composite neutrophil score was generated by summing all levels before examining additional correlations. There was a modest correlation between the neutrophil score and the blood neutrophil count, which was largely driven by the dose of steroids and not the proportion of low density and/or activated neutrophils. Analysis of longitudinal data revealed no correlation between baseline neutrophil score or changes over the first year of follow-up with subsequent renal flare or treatment outcomes, respectively. The findings argue that although the neutrophil score is associated with LN, its clinical utility as a biomarker may be limited.
Identification of a neutrophil-related gene expression signature that is enriched in adult systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active nephritis: Clinical/pathologic associations and etiologic mechanisms.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
We profiled Myc binding in a normal breast cell-line (MCF10A) under basal conditions after ectopic expression of Myc. We showed that ectopic Myc expression increases tumour formation in vivo and in vitro. We then profiled genome-wide Myc binding using Agilent promoter arrays in MCF10A cells expressing wild-type and ectopic Myc. We show that Myc binds to a greater number of spots in wild-type than in Myc cells, but that some targets are unique to each condition.
No associated publication
Cell lineView Samples
We profiled hepatic transcriptional responses of 6 strains of rats with varying sensitivity to a dioxin, TCDD, at 19 hours following exposure. The resistant rats exhibited significantly reduced transcriptional responses in comparison to the sensitive strains. We hypothesize that genes which show differential changes between the resistant and sensitive rats may potentially explain sensitivity.
Inter-strain heterogeneity in rat hepatic transcriptomic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
Sex, Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
The dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a wide range of toxic effects in rodent species, all of which are mediated by a ligand-dependent transcription-factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The Han/Wistar (Kuopio) (H/W) strain shows exceptional resistance to many TCDD-induced toxicities; the LD50 of >9600 g/kg for H/W rats is higher than for any other wild-type mammal known. We have previously shown that this resistance primarily results from H/W rats expressing a variant AHR isoform that has a substantial portion of the AHR transactivation domain deleted. Despite this large deletion, H/W rats are not entirely refractory to the effects of TCDD; the variant AHR in these animals remains fully competent to up-regulate well-known dioxin-inducible genes. TCDD-sensitive (Long-Evans, L-E) and resistant (H/W) rats were treated with either corn-oil (with or without feed-restriction) or 100 g/kg TCDD for either four or ten days. Hepatic transcriptional profiling was done using microarrays, and was validated by RT-PCR analysis of 41 genes. . A core set of genes was altered in both strains at all time points tested, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1, Tiparp, Exoc3, and Inmt. Outside this core, the strains differed significantly in the breadth of response: three-fold more genes were altered in L-E than H/W rats. At ten days almost all expressed genes were dysregulated in L-E rats, likely reflecting emerging toxic responses. Far fewer genes were affected by feed-restriction, suggesting that only a minority of the TCDD-induced changes are secondary to the wasting syndrome.
Hepatic transcriptomic responses to TCDD in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats during the onset of toxicity.