Analysis of gene expression change induced by myeloma cells in pDCs. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that myeloma cells inhibit pDCs function by direct contact. Results provide important information of gene expression change in the cocultured of pDCs and myeloma, such as IFNs and IFN regulatory genes, TLR9 signaling pathways.
E-cadherin expression on multiple myeloma cells activates tumor-promoting properties in plasmacytoid DCs.
Specimen partView Samples
Erlotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is approved as a second-line monotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In these patients, erlotinib prolongs survival but its benefit remains modest since many tumors express wild-type EGF receptor (wtEGFR) lacking a TKI-sensitizing mutation, develop a second-site EGFR mutation, e.g., EGFR-L858R/T790M, or activate an alternate receptor tyrosine kinase, e.g., through MET amplification. To test potential drug combinations that could improve the efficacy of erlotinib, we combined erlotinib with quinacrine, which inhibits the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex that is required for nuclear factor-B (NF-B) transcriptional activity. In A549 (wtEGFR), H1975 (EGFR-L858R/T790M) and H1993 (MET amplification) NSCLC cells, the combination of erlotinib and quinacrine was highly synergistic, as quantified by Chou-Talalay combination indices. The combination inhibited colony formation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and slowed xenograft tumor growth. Quinacrine decreased the level of active FACT subunit SSRP1 and suppressed NF-B-dependent luciferase activity. Knockdown of SSRP1 decreased cell growth and sensitized cells to erlotinib.
Quinacrine overcomes resistance to erlotinib by inhibiting FACT, NF-κB, and cell-cycle progression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as energy sources, components of cell membranes, and precursors for signalling molecules. Here we show that these important biological compounds also regulate gene expression by controlling the transcriptional activities of the retinoic acid (RA)-activated nuclear receptors RAR and PPAR/. Our data indicates that these activities of LCFA are mediated by FABP5, a protein that delivers ligands from the cytosol to nuclear PPAR/. Both saturated and unsaturated LCFA (SLCFA, ULCFA) tightly bind to FABP5, thereby displacing RA and diverting it to RAR. However, while SLCFA inhibit, ULCFA activate the FABP5/PPAR/ pathway. By concomitantly promoting the activation of RAR and inhibiting the activity of PPAR/, SLCFA suppress the growth and oncogenic properties of FABP5-expressing carcinoma cells both in cultured cells and in vivo.
Saturated fatty acids regulate retinoic acid signalling and suppress tumorigenesis by targeting fatty acid-binding protein 5.
Cell lineView Samples
Glioblastomas display hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). RNA sequencing and enhancer mapping revealed regulatory programs unique to CSCs causing upregulation of the iron transporter transferrin, the top differentially expressed gene compared to tissue-specific progenitors. Direct interrogation of iron uptake demonstrated CSCs potently extract iron from the microenvironment more effectively than other tumor cells. Systematic interrogation of iron flux determined that CSCs preferentially require transferrin receptor and ferritin - two core iron regulators - to propagate and form tumors in vivo. Depleting ferritin disrupted CSC mitotic progression, through the STAT3-FoxM1 regulatory axis, revealing an iron-regulated CSC pathway. Iron is a unique, primordial metal fundamental for earliest life forms, and on which CSCs have an epigenetically programmed, targetable dependence.
Preferential Iron Trafficking Characterizes Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells.
Cell lineView Samples
CRABP2 potently suppresses carcinoma cell growth, yet the mechanism(s) that underlie this activity remain incompletely understood. Two distinct functions are known for CRABP2: 1) the classical function of this protein is to directly deliver retinoic acid (RA) to the nuclear retinoic-acid receptorthereby activate gene expression, and 2) in the absence of RA, CRABP2 directly binds to the RNA-binding and stabilizing protein, HuR, and markedly strengthens its interactions with target mRNAs.
Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 inhibits tumor growth by two distinct mechanisms.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Members of the CUG-BP, Elav-like family (CELF) regulate alternative splicing in the heart. In MHC-CELFdelta transgenic mice, CELF splicing activity is inhibited postnatally in heart muscle via expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein under an a-myosin heavy chain promoter. MHC-CELFdelta mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by alternative splicing defects, enlarged hearts, and severe contractile dysfunction. In this study, gene expression profiles in the hearts of wild type, high- and low-expressing lines of MHC-CELFdelta mice were compared using microarrays. Gene ontology and pathway analyses identified contraction and calcium signaling as the most affected processes. Network analysis revealed that the serum response factor (SRF) network is highly affected. Downstream targets of SRF were up-regulated in MHC-CELFdelta mice compared to the wild type, suggesting an increase in SRF activity. Although SRF levels remained unchanged, known inhibitors of SRF activity were down-regulated. These results suggest a role for CELF-mediated alternative splicing in the regulation of contractile gene expression, achieved in part through modulating the activity of SRF, a key cardiac transcription factor.
Gene expression analyses implicate an alternative splicing program in regulating contractile gene expression and serum response factor activity in mice.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
We found that IL-7 pretreatment enhanced Th9 differentiation. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we examine the gene expression profiles of CD4+ T cell and Th9 cells with or without IL-7 pretreatment. In Th9 cells, we found that Th9 related genes were greatly increased in IL-7 Th9 group, which demonstrated an enhanced Th9 differentiation. In CD4+ T cells, we found that IL-7 treatment resulted in a global gene expression change especially on chromatin remodeling related genes, which facilitated the entry of transcriptional factor to the Il9 promoter region and promoted Il9 transcription.
Foxo1 and Foxp1 play opposing roles in regulating the differentiation and antitumor activity of T<sub>H</sub>9 cells programmed by IL-7.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
CSCs differentially secrete the BMP antagonist Gremlin1 compared to non-stem glioma populations. Knockdown of Gremlin1 decreases CSC proliferation and tumorigenicity, establishing Gremlin1 as an essential effector for CSC maintenance.
Glioma cancer stem cells secrete Gremlin1 to promote their maintenance within the tumor hierarchy.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples