We have carried out transcriptional profile analysis in macroH2A knockdown cells (Namalwa B cells and HeLa cells) and demonstrated that this histone variant plays positive and negative roles in transcription. We also demonstrated the role of macroH2A in regulating the response to Sendai Virus infection.
Composite macroH2A/NRF-1 Nucleosomes Suppress Noise and Generate Robustness in Gene Expression.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
A growing number of studies on gynecological cancers (GCs) have revealed potential gene markers associated either with the pathogenesis and progression of the disease on representing putative targets for therapy and treatment of cervical (CC), endometrial (EC) and vulvar cancer (VC). However, quite a little overlap is found between these data. In this study we combined data from the three GCs integrating gene expression profile analysis.
Profiling of Discrete Gynecological Cancers Reveals Novel Transcriptional Modules and Common Features Shared by Other Cancer Types and Embryonic Stem Cells.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/Cip1 is the prototype downstream effector of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Yet, evidence from human cancer and mice models, imply that p21WAF1/Cip1, under certain conditions, can exercise oncogenic activity. The mechanism behind this behavior is still obscure. Within this context we unexpectedly noticed, predominantly in p53 mutant human cancers, that a subset of highly atypical cancerous cells expressing strongly p21WAF1/Cip1 demonstrated also signs of proliferation. This finding suggests either tolerance to high p21WAF1/Cip1 levels or that p21WAF1/Cip1 per se guided a selective process that led to more aggressive off-springs. To address the latter scenario we employed p21WAF1/Cip1-inducible p53-null cellular models and monitored them over a prolonged time period, using high-throughput screening means. After an initial phase characterized by stalled growth, mainly due to senescence, a subpopulation of p21WAF1/Cip1 cells emerged, demonstrating increased genomic instability, aggressiveness and chemo-resistance. At the mechanistic level unremitted p21WAF1/Cip1 production saturates the CRL4CDT2 and SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase complexes reducing the turn-over of the replication licensing machinery. Deregulation of replication licensing triggered replication stress fuelling genomic instability. Conceptually, the above notion should be considered when anti-tumor strategies are designed, since p21WAF1/Cip1 responds also to p53-independent signals, including various chemotherapeutic compounds.
Chronic p53-independent p21 expression causes genomic instability by deregulating replication licensing.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The Notch signaling pathway controls cell fates through interactions between neighboring cells by positively or negatively affecting, in a context-dependent manner, processes of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis1. It has been implicated in human cancer both as an oncogene and a tumor suppressor2. Here we report, for the first time, novel inactivating mutations in the Notch pathway components in over forty percent of the human bladder cancers examined. Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the US male population3. Thus far, driver mutations in the FGFR3 and less commonly RAS proteins have been identified4,5. We show that Notch activation in bladder cancer cells suppresses proliferation both in vitro and in vivo by directly upregulating dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), thus reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In mouse models, genetic inactivation of Notch signaling leads to ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulting in tumorigenesis in the urinary tract. In recent years, the tumor suppressor role of Notch has been recognized by loss-of-function mutations identified in myeloid cancers6 as well as squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, lung7, and the head and neck8,9. Of the 4 Notch receptors (N1-4), only N1 and 2 have been implicated in human cancer.
A new tumor suppressor role for the Notch pathway in bladder cancer.
Specimen partView Samples
The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is rising the concern about the adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Studies are targeting on unrevealing the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR action. The contribution of the omics high throughput approaches is a prerequisite towards this direction. In the present work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were sham-exposed (nSE=8) or whole-body exposed (nExp=8) for 2h to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at 11 V/m average electric field intensity, and the RF-EMR effects on the hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile were evaluated. The data analysis of the phospholipids fatty acid residues revealed that the levels of six fatty acids (16:0, 16:1 6+7c, 18:1 9c, 20:5 w3, SFA, MUFA) were significantly altered (p<0.05) in the exposed group. The microarray data analysis demonstrated that the expression of 178 genes changed significantly (p<0.05) between the two groups with a fold change cut off of 1.5. In general, the observed changes point out the attention to a membrane remodeling response of the tissue phospholipids after non-ionizing radiation exposure, reducing the Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) and EPA omega-3 (20:5 w3) and increasing Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) residues and in parallel reflect an impact to genes implicated in critical biological processes, as cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, cell death, cell signaling, nervous system development and function, immune system response, lipid metabolism and cancer
Hippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation: An exploratory study.
Specimen partView Samples