Background and Purpose—Analyzing genes involved in development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms can enhance knowledge about the pathogenesis of aneurysms, and identify new treatment strategies. We compared gene expression between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms and control intracranial arteries. Methods—We determined expression levels with RNA sequencing. Applying a multivariate negative binomial model, we identified genes that were differentially expressed between 44 aneurysms and 16 control arteries, and between 22 ruptured and 21 unruptured aneurysms. The differential expression of 8 relevant and highly significant genes was validated using digital polymerase chain reaction. Pathway analysis was used to identify enriched pathways. We also analyzed genes with an extreme pattern of differential expression: only expressed in 1 condition without any expression in the other. Results—We found 229 differentially expressed genes in aneurysms versus controls and 1489 in ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms. The differential expression of all 8 genes selected for digital polymerase chain reaction validation was confirmed. Extracellular matrix pathways were enriched in aneurysms versus controls, whereas pathways involved in immune response and the lysosome pathway were enriched in ruptured versus unruptured aneurysms. Immunoglobulin genes were expressed in aneurysms, but showed no expression in controls. Conclusions—For rupture of intracranial aneurysms, we identified the lysosome pathway as a new pathway and found further evidence for the role of the immune response. Our results also point toward a role for immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of aneurysms. Immune-modifying drugs are, therefore, interesting candidate treatment strategies in the prevention of aneurysm development and rupture. Overall design: RNA sequencing of 44 intracranial aneurysm samples (including 21 unruptured, 22 ruptured and 1 undetermined) and 16 control samples of the intracranial cortical artery
RNA Sequencing Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysm Walls Reveals Involvement of Lysosomes and Immunoglobulins in Rupture.
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a tumor treatment strategy that relies on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tumor following local illumination. Although PDT has shown promising results in the treatment of non-resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, it is still employed palliatively. In this study, tumor-comprising cells (i.e., cancer cells, endothelial cells, macrophages) were treated with the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in cationic liposomes (ZPCLs). Post-PDT survival pathways were studied following sublethal (50% lethal concentration (LC50)) and supralethal (LC90) PDT using a multi-omics approach. ZPCLs did not exhibit toxicity in any of the cells as assessed by toxicogenomics. Sublethal PDT induced survival signaling in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells via mainly hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-B)-, activator protein 1 (AP-1)-, and heat shock factor (HSF)-mediated pathways. In contrast, supralethal PDT damage was associated with a dampened survival response. (Phospho)proteomic and metabolomic analysis showed that PDT-subjected SK-ChA-1 cells downregulated proteins associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, particularly at LC50. PDT also affected various components of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as metabolites involved in redox signaling. In conclusion, sublethal PDT activates multiple pathways in tumor parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells that, in tumor cells, transcriptionally regulate cell survival, proliferation, energy metabolism, detoxification, inflammation/angiogenesis, and metastasis. Accordingly, sublethally afflicted tumor cells are a major therapeutic culprit. Our multi-omics analysis unveiled multiple druggable targets for pharmacological intervention.
Multi-OMIC profiling of survival and metabolic signaling networks in cells subjected to photodynamic therapy.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
A key requisite for the success of a dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine in treating malignancies is the capacity of the DCs to attract immune effector cells for further interaction and activation, considering crosstalk with DCs is partially regulated by cell-contact-dependent mechanisms. Although critical for therapeutic efficacy, immune cell recruitment is a largely overlooked aspect regarding optimization of DC therapy. In this paper we examine if the so-called interleukin (IL)-15 DC vaccine provides a favorable chemokine milieu for recruiting T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and gamma delta () T cells, in comparison with the IL-4 DCs used routinely for clinical studies, as well as the underlying mechanisms of immune cell attraction by IL-15 DCs. Chemokine signaling is studied both at the RNA level, using microarray data of mature DCs, and functional level, by means of a transwell chemotaxis assay. Important to note, the classic IL-4 DC vaccine falls short to attract the required immune effector lymphocytes, whereas the IL-15 DCs provide a favorable chemokine milieu for recruiting all cytolytic effector cells. The elevated secretion of the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1), by IL-15 DCs underlies the enhanced migratory responsiveness of T cells, NK cells and T cells. Namely, neutralizing its receptor CCR5 resulted in a significant drop in migration of the aforementioned effector cells towards IL-15 DCs. These findings should be kept in mind in the design of future DC-based cancer vaccines.
Desirable cytolytic immune effector cell recruitment by interleukin-15 dendritic cells.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Purpose: the goal of this study is to investigate the consequences of USP3 deletion on gene expression in mouse LSK hematopoietic progenitors and in splenic B cells Methods: mRNA profiles of 8 weeks-old wild-type (WT) and ubiquitin specific protease 3 knockout (Usp3-/-) mice were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina Hiseq2000. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were mapped with TopHat and the gene expressions were calculated using HTSeq-count. qRTâ€“PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays Results: We assigned about 8-16 million reads per sample uniquely to a gene of the mouse reference genome (mm9). We identified 23,429 genes in the LSKs, naive B cells and activate B cells of WT and USP3-/- mice using TopHat in combination with HTSeq-count. Comparison of the RNAseq data from LSK with naive or activated B cells show that both the wt and the Usp3-/- LSKs largely exibited a gene expression profile that is specific for wt LSK and distinct from B cells (as supported by statistical significant difference between the transciptional profile of LSK versus naive or activated B cells, p value<0.0001 by Student t test). Comparison of normalized gene expression data for Wt LSKs versus naive B cells of one representative experiment shows Pearson coefficient of r=0.874, and R2=0.763. Distinct LSK-specific expressed genes (such as the MlI receptor and the Kit receptor) and B cells specific genes (such as the MS4A1/CD20 and Spi-B transcription factors) are identified. Expression of a set of 19 genes was assessed by RT-qPCR in three independent LSK mRNA per each genotype. qRT-PCR and the RNA-seq normalized expression data for these genes had a good linear relationship, validating the RNAseq analysis. Comparison of normalized gene expression data for Usp3-/- versus Wt LSK show Pearson coefficient r=0.986; R2=0.9738), naive B cells (Pearson coefficient r=0.987, R2=0.974) and LPS activated B cells (Pearson coefficient r=0.991, R2=0.983). RT-qPCR of a subset of hematopoietic stem cell genes, including Mlp2, ENg, Tek and Fdzl3, show no significant difference beteewn wt and Usp3-/- LSK cells. Less than 100 genes showed differential expression (up or down regulated) between the Wt and Usp3-/- LSK, with a fold change =1.5 and p value <0.05. Conclusions: Our results represent the first detailed analyis of the consequences of USP3 deletion on gene expression in hematopoietic populations such as LSKs progenitors and B cells by genome wide expression profiling in wt and Usp3-/- mice. RNAseq of two freshly isolated biological replicas of sorted LSKs from 8 weeks old Usp3-/- animals showed a very limited number of genes either slighly up or down regulated (<100 out of about 25.000) in Usp3-/- LSKs, none of which are reported to be directly involved in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance or to be linked to premature differentiation. We confirmed that Usp3-/- and wt LSKs express hematopoietic stem cell-specific genes to a similar extent. We conclude that young adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSKs) perpetuated a stable gene expression program regardless of the homozygous deletion of USP3. Overall design: mRNA profiles of 8 weeks-old wild type (WT) and Usp3-/- mice were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using Illumina Hiseq2000. For each experiment wt n=4, Usp3-/- n=4 mice were analized. FACS sorted cells from from individual animals were pooled and subjected to deep sequencing. Cells were: LSK (Lin- Sca1+ cKit+) from bone marrow, sorted naive B cells from spleens (CD19+) and activated B cells harvested and FACS sorted after 4 days stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in culture.
Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice.
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Recent studies have reported that glycosphingolipids (GSL) might be involved in obesity induced insulin resistance. Those reports suggested that inhibition of GSL biosynthesis in animals ameliorated insulin sensitivity accompanied with improved glycemic control leading to decreased liver steatosis in obese mice. In addition, GSL depletion altered hepatic secretory function. In those studies, ubiquitously acting inhibitors for GSL-biosynthesis have been used to inhibit function of the enzyme Ugcg (UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase), catalyzing the first step of the glucosylceramide based GSL-synthesis pathway. In the present study, a genetic approach for GSL deletion in hepatocytes was chosen to achieve full inhibition of GSL synthesis and to prevent possible adverse effects caused by Ugcg-inhibitors. Using the Cre/loxP system under control of the albumin promoter, GSL biosynthesis in hepatocytes and their release into the plasma could be effectively blocked. Deletion of GSL in hepatocytes did not change quantity of bile excretion through the biliary duct. Total bile salt content in bile-, feces- and plasma from mutant mice showed no difference as compared to control animals. Cholesterol concentration in liver-, bile-, feces- and plasma-samples remained unaffected. Lipoprotein concentration in plasma-samples in mutant animals reached similar levels as in their control littermates. No alteration in glucose tolerance after intraperitoneal application of glucose and insulin appeared in mutant animals. A preventive effect of GSL-deficiency on development of liver steatosis after high fat diet feeding could not be observed.
Hepatic glycosphingolipid deficiency and liver function in mice.
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We sequenced mRNA from 6 samples of FACsorted telencephalons from E14.5 Sip1|Nkx2-1 knockout and WT|Nkx2-1 control mouse embryos to find differentially expressed genes in the absence of the transcription factor Sip1. Overall design: Examination of mRNA levels in 3 control and 3 Sip1|Nkx2-1 knockout samples
Directed migration of cortical interneurons depends on the cell-autonomous action of Sip1.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The transcriptional basis for disrupted epidermal differentiation arising from TP63 AEC mutations remains to be elucidated. Here we present an organotypic model of AEC dysfunction that phenocopies differentiation defects observed in AEC patient skin. Transcriptional analysis of model AEC tissue revealed impaired induction of differentiation regulators, including OVOL1, GRHL3, KLF4, PRDM1 and ZNF750. Genome wide binding analyses of TP63 during epidermal differentiation showed direct binding of OVOL1, GRHL3, and ZNF750 promoters suggesting AEC mutants prevent normal activation of these targets by direct transcriptional interference. Remarkably, exogenous ZNF750 restores impaired epidermal differentiation caused by AEC mutation. Thus, repression of ZNF750 is central to disrupted epidermal differentiation in model AEC tissue.
Genomic profiling of a human organotypic model of AEC syndrome reveals ZNF750 as an essential downstream target of mutant TP63.
Specimen partView Samples
Subjects with incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD) may represent the premotor stage of Parkinsons disease (PD). To identify molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal dysfunction and alpha--synuclein pathology in the premotor phase of PD, we investigated the transcriptome of post-mortem substantia nigra (SN) of iLBD, PD donors and age-matched controls with Braak alpha--synuclein stage ranging from 0-6. In Braak alpha--synuclein stages 1 and 2, we observed deregulation of pathways linked to axonal degeneration, unfolded protein response (UPR), immune response and endocytosis, including axonal guidance signaling, protein kinase A signaling, mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In Braak stages 3 and 4, we observed a deregulation in pathways involved in protein translation and cell survival, including mTOR and EIF2 signaling. In Braak stages 5 and 6, we observed deregulation of pathways such as dopaminergic signaling, axonal guidance signaling and thrombin signaling. Throughout the progression of PD pathology, we observed a deregulation of mTOR, EIF2 and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling in the SN. This implicates that molecular mechanisms related to UPR, axonal dysfunction, endocytosis and immune response are an early event in PD pathology, and may hold the key to altering the disease progression in PD.
Evidence for Immune Response, Axonal Dysfunction and Reduced Endocytosis in the Substantia Nigra in Early Stage Parkinson's Disease.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Synovial biopsies were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium and from subjects without a joint disease to find gene upregulated during RA.
Disease-Regulated Gene Therapy with Anti-Inflammatory Interleukin-10 Under the Control of the CXCL10 Promoter for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Disease, Disease stageView Samples