STEP (striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase) is a brain-specific phosphatase named for its robust expression in striatum. Brains from homozygous and heterozygous STEP knockout mice and wild-type littermates were harvested, and striatum microdissected. RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix 230_2 microarray chips.
Downstream effects of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase reduction on RNA expression in vivo and in vitro.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
The synthetic supercooling drug, icilin, and its primary receptor target, the cation channel transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin-8 (TRPM8), have been described as potent negative regulators of inflammation in the colon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the anti-inflammatory action of icilin could potentially be used to treat autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). During experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)a CD4+ T celldriven murine model of MSwe found that both wild-type (WT) and TRPM8-deficient EAE mice were protected from disease progression during icilin treatment, as evidenced by delays in clinical onset and reductions in neuroinflammation. In vitro, icilin potently inhibited the proliferation of murine and human CD4+ T cells, with the peripheral expansion of autoantigen-restricted T cells similarly diminished by the administration of icilin in mice. Attenuation of both TRPM8-/- and TRP ankyrin-1-/- T cell proliferation by icilin was consistent with the WT phenotype, which suggests a mechanism that is independent of these channels. In addition, icilin treatment altered the expressional profile of activated CD4+ T cells to one that was indicative of restricted effector function and limited neuroinflammatory potential. These findings identify a potent anti-inflammatory role for icilin in lymphocyte-mediated neuroinflammation and highlight clear pleiotropic effects of the compound beyond classic TRP channel activation.
The cooling compound icilin attenuates autoimmune neuroinflammation through modulation of the T-cell response.
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The composition of chromatin remodeling complexes dictates how these enzymes control transcriptional programs and cellular identity. Here, we investigate the composition of SWI/SNF complexes in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In contrast to differentiated cells, ESCs have a biased incorporation of certain paralogous SWI/SNF subunits, with low levels of Brm, BAF170 and ARID1B. Upon differentiation, the expression of these subunits increases, resulting in a higher diversity of compositionally distinct SWI/SNF enzymes. We also identify Brd7 as a novel component of the PBAF complex in both ESCs and differentiated cells. Using shRNA-mediated depletion of Brg1, we show that SWI/SNF can function as both a repressor and an activator in pluripotent cells, regulating expression of developmental modifiers and signaling components such as Nodal, ADAMTS1, Bmi-1, CRABP1 and TRH. Knock-down studies of PBAF-specific Brd7 and of a signature subunit within the BAF complex, ARID1A, show that these two sub-complexes affect SWI/SNF target genes differentially, in some cases even antagonistically. This may be due to their different biochemical properties. Finally, we examine the role of SWI/SNF in regulating its target genes during differentiation. We find that SWI/SNF affects recruitment of components of the pre-initiation complex in a promoter-specific manner, to modulate transcription positively or negatively. Taken together, our results provide insight into the function of compositionally diverse SWI/SNF enzymes that underlie their inherent gene-specific mode of action.
BRD7, a novel PBAF-specific SWI/SNF subunit, is required for target gene activation and repression in embryonic stem cells.
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The protrotophic laboratory strain CEN.PK113-7D (MAT a) and three knock-out strains snf1, snf4 and snf1snf4 were grown in laboratory fermentors with a working volume of 1 litre at dilution rate (D) of 0.10 per hour (in triplicate for each strain). At steady state, samples from each of the 12 continuous cultures were taken and cooled below 2 degree C within ten seconds by mixing 40% sample and 60% crushed ice.
Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator.
During each life cycle germ cells preserve and pass on both genetic and epigenetic information. In C. elegans, the ALG-3/4 Argonaute (AGO) proteins and their small-RNA cofactors are expressed during male gametogenesis and promote male fertility. Here we show that the CSR-1 AGO functions with ALG-3/4 to positively regulate target genes required for spermiogenesis. Our findings suggest that ALG-3/4 functions during spermatogenesis to amplify a small-RNA signal that represents an epigenetic memory of male-specific gene expression, while CSR-1, which is abundant in mature sperm, transmits this memory to offspring. Surprisingly, in addition to small RNAs targeting male-specific genes, we show that males also harbor an extensive repertoire of CSR-1 small RNAs targeting oogenesis-specific mRNAs. Together these findings suggest that C. elegans sperm transmit not only the genome but also epigenetic binary signals in the form of Argonaute/small-RNA complexes that constitute a memory of which genes were active in preceding generations. Overall design: Examine small RNA changes in WT and alg-3/4 mutant males cultured at 20°C and 25°C, as well as determine the small RNAs enriched in a FLAG::CSR-1 IP from male worms grown at 25°C. mRNA sequencing was also performed to determine how transcripts targeted by small RNAs change in mutant background at 20°C and 25°C.
Argonautes promote male fertility and provide a paternal memory of germline gene expression in C. elegans.
While others have reported that fetal liver contains a population of endothelial progenitors based on expression of cell surface markers or culture assays, this is the first proof of a CD31+Sca1+ progenitor by demonstrating highly efficient in vivo angiogenesis and a direct connection to the host vasculature. We have developed a novel isolation method based on collagenase digestion and culture on a fetal liver-derived feeder layer and demonstrate that the feeder cells or their supernatants are required for endothelial progenitor survival and proliferation. Proteogenomic profiling of the endothelial progenitors and the feeder cells was done with tandem mass spectrometry proteomics using MudPIT and gene transcript expression profiling using high density DNA microarrays. This approach identified a number of gene transcripts, proteins and candidate growth factor pathways that are likely to be involved in endothelial progenitor growth, differentiation and angiogenesis.
Isolation and angiogenesis by endothelial progenitors in the fetal liver.
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We have compared the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome of two isogenic cell lines: MCF-10A, derived from human breast epithelium, and the mutant MCF-10A-H1047R. These cell lines differ by a single amino acid substitution (H1047R) caused by single nucleotide change in one allele of the PIK3CA gene which encodes the catalytic subunit p110a of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The H1047R mutation of PIK3CA is one of the most frequently encountered somatic cancer-specific mutations. In MCF-10A, this mutation induces an extensive cellular reorganization that far exceeds the known signaling activities of PI3K. The changes are highly diverse; with examples in structural protein levels, the DNA repair machinery and sterol synthesis. Gene set enrichment analysis reveals a highly significant concordance of the genes differentially expressed in MCF-10A-H1047R cells and the established protein and RNA signatures of basal breast cancer. No such concordance was found with the specific gene signatures of other histological types of breast cancer. Our data document the power of a single base mutation, inducing an extensive remodeling of the cell toward the phenotype of a specific cancer. Overall design: 2 cell lines (H1047R and WT), 4 time points (0, 6, 12, 24 hours), 3 replicates
The butterfly effect in cancer: a single base mutation can remodel the cell.
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The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis through the activation of transcription factors such as XBP1s and ATF6. The functional consequences of these transcription factors for ER proteostasis remain poorly defined. Here, we describe methodology that enables orthogonal, small molecule-mediated activation of the UPR-associated transcription factors XBP1s and/or ATF6 in the same cell independent of stress. We employ transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics to evaluate ER proteostasis network remodeling owing to the XBP1s and/or ATF6 transcriptional programs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the three ER proteostasis environments accessible by activating XBP1s and/or ATF6 differentially influence the folding, trafficking, and degradation of destabilized ER client proteins without globally affecting the endogenous proteome. Our data reveal how the ER proteostasis network is remodeled by the XBP1s and/or ATF6 transcriptional programs at the molecular level and demonstrate the potential for selectively restoring aberrant ER proteostasis of pathologic, destabilized proteins through arm-selective UPR-activation.
Stress-independent activation of XBP1s and/or ATF6 reveals three functionally diverse ER proteostasis environments.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples