The murine model of Lyme disease provides a unique opportunity to study the localized host response to similar stimulus, B. burgdorferi, in the joints of mice destined to develop severe arthritis (C3H) or mild disease (C57BL/6). Pathways associated with the response to infection and the development of Lyme arthritis were identified by global gene expression patterns using oligonucleotide microarrays. A robust induction of IFN responsive genes was observed in severely arthritic C3H mice at one week of infection, which was absent from mildly arthritic C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice displayed a novel expression profile characterized by genes involved in epidermal differentiation and wound repair, which were decreased in the joints of C3H mice. These expression patterns were associated with disease state rather than inherent differences between C3H and C57BL/6 mice, as C57BL/6-IL10-/- mice infected with B. burgdorferi develop more severe arthritis that C57BL/6 mice and displayed an early gene expression profile similar to C3H mice. Gene expression profiles at two and four weeks post infection revealed a common response of all strains that was likely to be important for the host defense to B. burgdorferi and mediated by NF-kB-dependent signaling. The gene expression profiles identified in this study add to the current understanding of the host response to B. burgdorferi and identify two novel pathways that may be involved in regulating the severity of Lyme arthritis.
Gene expression profiling reveals unique pathways associated with differential severity of lyme arthritis.
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Gene expression profile of joint tissue from C3H and interval specific congenic mouse lines (ISCL) following infection with Borrelia burgdorferi
Interval-specific congenic lines reveal quantitative trait Loci with penetrant lyme arthritis phenotypes on chromosomes 5, 11, and 12.
Specimen partView Samples
T lymphocytes are essential contributors to the adaptive immune system and consist of multiple lineages that serve various effector and regulatory roles. As such, precise control of gene expression is essential to the proper development and function of these cells. Previously, we identified Snai2 and Snai3 as being essential regulators of immune tolerance partly due to the impaired function of CD4+ regulatory T cells in Snai2/3 conditional double knockout mice. Here we extend those previous findings using a bone marrow transplantation model to provide an environmentally unbiased view of the molecular changes imparted onto various T lymphocyte populations once Snai2 and Snai3 are deleted. The data presented here demonstrate that Snai2 and Snai3 transcriptionally regulate the cellular fitness and functionality of not only CD4+ regulatory T cells but effector CD8a+ and CD4+ conventional T cells as well. This is achieved through the modulation of gene sets unique to each cell type and includes transcriptional targets relevant to the survival and function of each T cell lineage. As such, Snai2 and Snai3 are essential regulators of T cell immunobiology. Overall design: GFP- CD3e+ CD8a+ CD4-, GFP- CD3e+ CD8a- CD4+ CD25- and GFP- CD3e+ CD8a- CD4+ CD25+ T cells were isolated from spleens of UBC-GFP mice transplanted with WT or cDKO lineage-depleted donor bone marrow following lethal irradiation of recipient mice. RNA-seq was performed on 3-4 biological replicates from each genotype for all T cell populations analyzed.
Snai2 and Snai3 transcriptionally regulate cellular fitness and functionality of T cell lineages through distinct gene programs.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Thyroid hormone has a positive effect on endochondral bone growth. Few studies have looked at the interaction between thyroid hormone exposures and intramembranous bone derived cells. We used microarray as one tool to determine the gene expression profile of intramembranous (calvarial) derived murine pre-osteoblsts after thyroxine exposure.
Effects of thyroxine exposure on osteogenesis in mouse calvarial pre-osteoblasts.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Plac1 is an X-linked (Xq26) trophoblast gene expressed at high levels in the placenta, at low levels in the testis, but not in other normal somatic tissues. However, it is re-expressed in several malignancies, including breast, colon, lung, gastric, liver and endometrial cancers as well as in most human cancer cell lines. Plac1 contains HLA-A2-restricted epitopes capable of eliciting a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against human breast cancer cells, and colorectal cancer patients with a Plac1-specific CTL response demonstrate long-term survival. To explore the role of Plac1 in cancer, mouse mammary tumor E0771 cells expressing high levels of Plac1 were transduced with a lentivirus expressing a Plac1 shRNA (E0771/shPlac1).
Plac1 Is a Key Regulator of the Inflammatory Response and Immune Tolerance In Mammary Tumorigenesis.
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Background: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems. We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods: Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freunds adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results: Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression, demonstrating long-term effects of PAE on the CNS response under steady-state conditions and following an inflammatory insult. Key words: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), ethanol, inflammation, arthritis, gene expression, rat.
Prenatal alcohol exposure alters steady-state and activated gene expression in the adult rat brain.
Sex, Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
Loss of the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin is thought to enable metastasis by disrupting intercellular contacts - an early step in metastatic dissemination. To further investigate the molecular basis of this notion, we use two methods to inhibit E-cadherin function that distinguish between E-cadherin's cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling functions. While the disruption of cell-cell contacts alone does not enable metastasis, the loss of E-cadherin protein does, through induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasiveness and anoikis-resistance. We find the E-cadherin binding partner beta-catenin to be necessary but not sufficient for induction of these phenotypes. In addition, gene expression analysis shows that E-cadherin loss results in the induction of multiple transcription factors, at least one of which, Twist, is necessary for E-cadherin loss-induced metastasis. These findings indicate that E-cadherin loss in tumors contributes to metastatic dissemination by inducing wide-ranging transcriptional and functional changes.
Loss of E-cadherin promotes metastasis via multiple downstream transcriptional pathways.
Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe here an approach to screening for agents with epithelial CSC-specific toxicity. We implemented this method in a chemical screen and discovered compounds showing selective toxicity for breast CSCs. One compound, salinomycin, reduces the proportion of CSCs by >100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Treatment of mice with salinomycin inhibits mammary tumor growth in vivo and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, global gene expression analyses show that salinomycin treatment results in the loss of expression of breast CSC genes previously identified by analyses of breast tissues isolated directly from patients. This study demonstrates the ability to identify agents with specific toxicity for epithelial CSCs
Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening.
Specimen partView Samples
Endocardial (EE) and Aortic (AE) endothelial cells were isolated from the same two rats, pooled (EE and AE kept separately) and cultured for 2 passages. Culture conditions and confluence of EE and AE cell cultures were kept as identical as possible. RNA was isolated and the expression profile of both endothelial cell types was compared using the Affymetrix rat genome U34A array.
Molecular diversity of cardiac endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo.
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