Host-microbe associations underlie many key processes of host development, immunity, and life history. Yet, none of the current research on the central model species Caenorhabditis elegans considers the worm's natural microbiome. Instead, almost all laboratories exclusively use the canonical strain N2 and derived mutants, maintained through routine bleach sterilization in monoxenic cultures with an E. coli strain as food. Here, we characterize for the first time the native microbiome of C. elegans and assess its influence on nematode life history characteristics via transcriptomics. Overall design: mRNA profiles of wild type (WT) C.elegans fed to either Ochrobactrum strain MYb65, MYb71, mixture of MYb65 and MYb71 or standard lab food E. coli OP50 at different life stages (from L2 to adults) were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2000.
The Inducible Response of the Nematode <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> to Members of Its Natural Microbiota Across Development and Adult Life.
Cell line, Treatment, Subject, TimeView Samples
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitors (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion. Gene array and reconstitution assays indicate that this effect can be attributed to the regulation of ECM components and ECM-modifying enzymes in aNPCs by PACAP. Our work suggests that PACAP regulates a bidirectional interaction between the aNPCs and their niche: PACAP modifies ECM production and remodeling, in turn the ECM regulates progenitor cell adherence. We speculate that PACAP may in this manner help restrict adult neural progenitors to the stem cell niche in vivo, with potential significance for aNPC function in physiological and pathological states.
PACAP Promotes Matrix-Driven Adhesion of Cultured Adult Murine Neural Progenitors.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples