Defective complex I (CI) is the most common type of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disease in patients, with an incidence of 1 in 5,000 live births. Complex I deficiency can present in infancy or early adulthood and shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including Leigh syndrome, (cardio)myopathy, hypotonia, stroke, ataxia and lactic acidosis. A number of critical processes and factors, like superoxide production, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology, are known to be involved in clinical CI deficiency, but not all factors are yet known and a complete picture is lacking.
Transcriptional changes in OXPHOS complex I deficiency are related to anti-oxidant pathways and could explain the disturbed calcium homeostasis.
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To understand how haploinsufficiency of progranulin (PGRN) protein causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD), we created induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from patients carrying the GRNIVS1+5G>C mutation (FTD-iPSCs). FTD-iPSCs were fated to cortical neurons, the cells most affected in FTD and known to express PGRN. Although generation of neuroprogenitors was unaffected, their further differentiation into neurons, especially CTIP2-, FOXP2- or TBR1-TUJ1 double positive cortical neurons, was significantly decreased in FTD-neural progeny. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated introduction of PGRN cDNA into the AAVS1 locus corrected defects in cortical neurogenesis, demonstrating that PGRN haploinsufficiency causes inefficient cortical neuron generation. RNAseq analysis confirmed reversal of altered gene expression profile following genetic correction. Wnt signaling pathway, one of the top defective pathways in FTD-iPSC-derived neurons coupled with its reversal following genetic correction, makes it an important candidate. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that PGRN haploinsufficiency hampers corticogenesis in vitro. Overall design: We profiled 6 samples: two biological replicates for 3 conditions. Condition 1 consists of neuronal progeny derived from human Embryonic Stem Cells. Condition 2 consists of neuronal progeny derived from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients carrying PGRN mutation. Condition 3 consists of neuronal progeny derived from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients carrying PGRN mutation, genetically modified to correct the PGRN defect.
Restoration of progranulin expression rescues cortical neuron generation in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of frontotemporal dementia.
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Gene expression information is useful in prioritizing candidate genes in linkage intervals. The data can also identify pathways involved in the pathophysiology of disease.
Integration of expression profiles and genetic mapping data to identify candidate genes in intracranial aneurysm.
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This study explores lineage and regulatory processes involved in early post implantation mouse embryos using single-cell RNA-seq Overall design: Single cells from C57Bl/6Babr mouse embryos at E3.5, E4.5, E5.5 and E6.5 were isolated and subjected to single-cell RNA-seq protocol.
Single-Cell Landscape of Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Cell Fate Decisions during Mouse Early Gastrulation.
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Plants have evolved shoot elongation mechanisms to escape from diverse environmental stresses such as flooding and vegetative shade. The apparent similarity in growth responses suggests possible convergence of the signalling pathways. Shoot elongation is mediated by passive ethylene accumulating in flooded plant organs and by changes in light quality and quantity under vegetation shade. Here we study hypocotyl elongation as a proxy for shoot elongation and delineated Arabidopsis hypocotyl length kinetics in response to ethylene and shade. Based on these kinetics, we further investigated ethylene and shade-induced genome-wide gene expression changes in hypocotyls and cotyledons separately. Both treatments induced a more extensive transcriptome reconfiguration in the hypocotyls compared to the cotyledons. Bioinformatics analyses suggested contrasting regulation of growth promotion- and photosynthesis-related genes. These analyses also suggested an induction of auxin, brassinosteroid and gibberellin signatures and the involvement of several candidate regulators in the elongating hypocotyls. Pharmacological and mutant analyses confirmed the functional involvement of several of these candidate genes and physiological control points in regulating stress-escape responses to different environmental stimuli. We discuss how these signaling networks might be integrated and conclude that plants, when facing different stresses, utilise a conserved set of transcriptionally regulated genes to modulate and fine tune growth.
Ethylene- and Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Elongation Share Transcriptome Patterns and Functional Regulators.
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The discovery of significant heterogeneity in the self-renewal durability of adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has challenged our understanding of the molecules involved in population maintenance throughout life. Gene expression studies in bulk populations are difficult to interpret since multiple HSC subtypes are present and HSC purity is typically less than 50% of the input cell population. Numerous groups have therefore turned to studying gene expression profiles of single HSCs, but again these studies are limited by the purity of the input fraction and an inability to directly ascribe a molecular program to a durable self-renewing HSC. Here we combine single cell functional assays with flow cytometric index sorting and single cell gene expression assays to gain the first insight into the gene expression program of HSCs that possess durable self-renewal. This approach can be used in other stem cell systems and sets the stage for linking key molecules with defined cellular functions. Overall design: single-cell RNA-Seq of haematopoietic stem cells
Combined Single-Cell Functional and Gene Expression Analysis Resolves Heterogeneity within Stem Cell Populations.
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This study profiles transcriptomic changes of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 in response to submergence. This dataset includes CEL files, RMA signal values and MAS5 P/M/A calls from total mRNA populations of plants at 9 to 10 leaf rosette stage. Biological replicates of root and shoot tissues were harvested after 7 h and 24 h of submergence in darkness along with corresponding non-submerged dark controls. To characterize the dark response, non-submerged light controls plants were harvested at the 0 h time point. Quantitative profiling of cellular mRNAs was accomplished with the Affymetrix ATH1 platform. Changes in the transcriptome in response to submergence and early darkness were evaluated, and the data led to identification of genes co-regulated at the conditional and organ-specific level.
Molecular characterization of the submergence response of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia.
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Growth in dense stands induces shade avoidance responses. Early responses to neighbors seem to be assoctaed with touch, not light signalling.
Plant neighbor detection through touching leaf tips precedes phytochrome signals.
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In rice (Oryza sativa L.), the haplotype at the multigenic SUBMERGENCE 1 (SUB1) locus determines survival of prolonged submergence. SUB1 encodes two or three group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family transcription factors, SUB1A, SUB1B and SUB1C. A highly submergence-inducible SUB1A allele is present in lines that are submergence tolerant. This gene is the determinant of submergence tolerance. Here, the heterologous ectopic expression of rice SUB1A and SUB1C in Arabidopsis thaliana was employed to assess the transcriptional network mobilized by ectopic expression of SUB1A and SUB1C.
Expression of rice SUB1A and SUB1C transcription factors in Arabidopsis uncovers flowering inhibition as a submergence tolerance mechanism.
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In this study we analyzed the effect of overexpression of an HA-tagged version of the ERF RAP2.12 on the transcriptome levels in aerobic and hypoxic-treated (O2 21% and 1%, respectively) Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes.
Oxygen sensing in plants is mediated by an N-end rule pathway for protein destabilization.