HEK293 cells were transfected with control plasmid (pcDNAI/Neo;Invitrogen) or with the plasmid encoding HCaRG. Stable transfectants were synchronized and grown in the presence of 10% FBS for 48 h. Total RNAs were purified with the mini RNeasy kit (Qiagen).
HCaRG increases renal cell migration by a TGF-alpha autocrine loop mechanism.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The SCL and LMO1 oncogenic transcription factors reprogram thymocytes into self-renewing pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs). Here we report that SCL directly interacts with LMO1 to activate the transcription of a self-renewal program coordinated by LYL1.
SCL, LMO1 and Notch1 reprogram thymocytes into self-renewing cells.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism of genetic regulation which modifies the sequence of RNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes. AS has been shown to increase both the variability and diversity of the cellular proteome by changing the composition of resulting proteins through differential choice of exons to be included in mature mRNAs. Results In the present study, alterations to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes upon viral infection were investigated through high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) studies using mammalian reovirus as a model. Our study provides the first comprehensive portrait of global changes in the RNA splicing signatures that occur in eukaryotic cells following infection with a human virus. We identify modifications in the AS patterns of 240 cellular transcripts frequently involved in the regulation of gene expression and RNA metabolism. A significant number of the modified transcripts are also encoded by genes with important roles in viral infection/immunity. These modifications are expected to alter the functions of many cellular proteins. Finally, we used RT-PCR analysis in order to experimentally validate differential modifications in alternative splicing patterns that were observed through RNA-seq studies. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that viral infection can extensively modify the splicing patterns of numerous cellular transcripts. These findings provide additional insights into the complexity of virus-host interactions as these splice variants expand proteome diversity and function during viral infection. Finally, these data open new avenues of research for a better understanding of post-transcriptional events during virus infection and possible new targets toward the development of antiviral agents. Overall design: mRNAs were isolated from L929 mouse cell line, 14 hours after infection with T3D-S Reovirus or T3D-S Mutant reovirus at a MOI of 50. Control cells were uninfected. The resulting libraries were multiplexed and paired-end sequenced using Illumina HiSeq. Gene expression and alternative splicing were caracterized using Bowtie and RSEM.
Global Profiling of the Cellular Alternative RNA Splicing Landscape during Virus-Host Interactions.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Steroid hormones regulate essential physiological processes and inadequate levels are associated with various pathological conditions. In testosterone-producing Leydig cells, steroidogenesis is strongly stimulated by LH via its receptor leading to increased cAMP production and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein, which is essential for the initiation of steroidogenesis. Leydig cell steroidogenesis then passively decreases following the rapid degradation of cAMP into AMP by phosphodiesterases. In this study, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated following cAMP breakdown in MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells. Activated AMPK then actively inhibits cAMP-induced steroidogenesis by repressing the expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis including Star and Nr4a1. Similar results were obtained in Y-1 adrenal cells and in the constitutive steroidogenic cell line R2C. Our data identify AMPK as an active repressor of steroid hormone biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells that is essential to preserve cellular energy and prevent excess steroid production.
A cell-autonomous molecular cascade initiated by AMP-activated protein kinase represses steroidogenesis.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Testosterone production by Leydig cells is a tightly regulated process requiring synchronized expression of several steroidogenic genes by numerous transcription factors. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is a transcription factor recently identified in somatic cells of the male gonad. In other tissues, MEF2 is an essential regulator of organogenesis and cell differentiation. So far in the testis, MEF2 was found to regulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis by controlling Nr4a1 and Star gene expression. To expand our understanding of the role of MEF2 in Leydig cells, we performed microarray analyses of MA-10 Leydig cells depleted in MEF2 and results were analyzed using the Partek and IPA softwares. Several genes were differentially expressed in MEF2-depleted Leydig cells and 15 were validated by qPCR. A large number of these genes are known to be involved in fertility, gonad morphology and steroidogenesis and include Pde8a, Por, Ahr, Bmal1, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Map2k1, Tsc22d3, Nr0b2, Smad4, and Star, which were all downregulated in the absence of MEF2. In silico analyses revealed the presence of MEF2 binding sites within the first 2 kb upstream the transcription start site of the Por, Bmal1, and Nr0b2 promoters, which suggests a direct regulation by MEF2. Using transient transfections in MA-10 Leydig cells, siRNA knockdown, and a MEF2-Engrailed dominant negative, we found that MEF2 activates the Por, Bmal1 and Nr0b2 promoters and that this requires an intact MEF2 element. Our results identify novel target genes for MEF2 and define MEF2 as an important regulator of Leydig cell function and male reproduction.
Novel Targets for the Transcription Factors MEF2 in MA-10 Leydig Cells.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The objective is to quantify the contribution of genetic and common environmental effects in the familial resemblances of whole blood genome-wide gene expression levels. We also make comparisons with familial resemblances in blood leukocytes genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the same cohort in order to further investigate biological mechanims.
Familial resemblances in human whole blood transcriptome.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) in eutherians retain homologous regions between the X and Y chromosomes that play a critical role in the obligatory X-Y crossover during male meiosis. Genes that reside in the PAR1 are exceptional in that they are rich in repetitive sequences and undergo a very high rate of recombination. Remarkably, murine PAR1 homologs have translocated to various autosomes, reflecting the complex recombination history during the evolution of the mammalian X chromosome. We now report that the SNF2-type chromatin remodeling protein ATRX controls the expression of eutherians ancestral PAR1 genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse. In addition, we have identified two potentially novel mouse PAR1 orthologs. We propose that the ancestral PAR1 genes share a common epigenetic environment that allows ATRX to control their expression.
The SWI/SNF protein ATRX co-regulates pseudoautosomal genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse genome.
Allergic asthma is a complex trait. Several approaches have been used to identify biomarkers involved in this disease. This study aimed at demonstrating the relevance and validity of microarrays in the definition of allergic asthma expression pattern. The authors compared the transcript expressions of bronchial biopsy of 2 different microarray experiments done 2 years apart, both including nonallergic healthy and allergic asthmatic subjects (n = 4 in each experiment). U95Av2 and U133A GeneChips detected respectively 89 and 40 differentially expressed genes. Fifty-five percent of the U133A genes were previously identified with the U95Av2 arrays. The immune signaling molecules and the proteolytic enzymes were the most preserved categories between the 2 experiments, because 3/4 of the genes identified by the U133A were also significant in the U95Av2 study for both categories. These results demonstrate the relevance of microarray experiments using bronchial tissues in allergic asthma. The comparison of these GeneChip studies suggests that earlier microarray results are as relevant as actual ones to target new genes of interest, particularly in function categories linked to the studied disease. Moreover, it demonstrates that microarrays are a valuable technology to target novel allergic asthma pathways as well as biomarkers.
A comparison of two sets of microarray experiments to define allergic asthma expression pattern.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) alpha is an orphan nuclear receptor highly expressed in the kidneys. ERRalpha is implicated in renal sodium and potassium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. We used microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in ERR alpha knockout mice kidneys versus wild-type. The results provide insight on the roles of ERRalpha in the kidney.
Physiological genomics identifies estrogen-related receptor alpha as a regulator of renal sodium and potassium homeostasis and the renin-angiotensin pathway.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples