Background. More than one million women in fertile age are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide. Anti-T.cruzi seropositivity in mothers has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome but there is still a knowledge gap regarding this effect. Our aim was to compare the gene expression profile of term placental environment from T. cruzi seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) mothers. Methods. A RNA-Seq was performed in 9 pools of 2 different placental RNA samples each: 3 belonging to placentas from SN and 6 from SP. Each pool consisted of a binomial of a female/male newborn and a vaginal/caesarean delivery. None of the newborns resulted infected. Results. Only 42 genes showed a significant fold change between SP and SN groups. Among the down-regulated genes were KISS1 and CGB5. In the up-regulated genes group were: KIF12, HLA-G, PRG2, TAC3, FN1 and ATXN3L. To identify pathways significantly associated with maternal T. cruzi-infection, a gene-set association analysis was implemented. The placental environment transcriptomic profile of SP consisted of an enrichment in immunological genes sets (inflammatory response and lymphocytic activation were over-expressed) whereas numerous biosynthetic processes were down-regulated. Conclusions. It is worth noting that several differentially expressed genes in SP placentas code for proteins associated to preeclampsia and miscarriage. This first transcriptomics study in human term placental environment from non-infected deliveries shows a placental response that may affect the faetus while protecting it from the parasite infection; this host response could be responsible for the low rate of congenital transmission observed in human chronic Chagas disease. Background. More than one million women in fertile age are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide. Anti-T.cruzi seropositivity in mothers has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome but there is still a knowledge gap regarding this effect. Our aim was to compare the gene expression profile of term placental environment from T. cruzi seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) mothers. Methods. A RNA-Seq was performed in 9 pools of 2 different placental RNA samples each: 3 belonging to placentas from SN and 6 from SP. Each pool consisted of a binomial of a female/male newborn and a vaginal/caesarean delivery. None of the newborns resulted infected. Results. Only 42 genes showed a significant fold change between SP and SN groups. Among the down-regulated genes were KISS1 and CGB5. In the up-regulated genes group were: KIF12, HLA-G, PRG2, TAC3, FN1 and ATXN3L. To identify pathways significantly associated with maternal T. cruzi-infection, a gene-set association analysis was implemented. The placental environment transcriptomic profile of SP consisted of an enrichment in immunological genes sets (inflammatory response and lymphocytic activation were over-expressed) whereas numerous biosynthetic processes were down-regulated. Conclusions. It is worth noting that several differentially expressed genes in SP placentas code for proteins associated to preeclampsia and miscarriage. This first transcriptomics study in human term placental environment from non-infected deliveries shows a placental response that may affect the faetus while protecting it from the parasite infection; this host response could be responsible for the low rate of congenital transmission observed in human chronic Chagas disease. Overall design: Serodiagnosis of pregnant women was done by means of conventional serological methods and carried out by the respective health centres based on routine assays. In maternal and umbilical cord blood samples T. cruzi presence was tested using multiplex Real Time PCR as previously described . Maternal infection with other pathogens that produce congenital transmission and adverse pregnancy outcome were considered as exclusion criteria, as well as missing data or incorrect sampling. Fresh normal placentas were obtained after labour from vaginal or caesarean deliveries and placed within 24 hours at 4°C. Each placenta was dissected and the middle section  at 2 cm distance from the umbilical cord was isolated and placed into RNAlater solution (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Total RNA was extracted with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and stored at -80°C until used. Transcriptomic studies. A RNA-Seq experiment was done in 9 pools of 2 different placental RNA samples each: 3 pools (C1, C2 and C3) belonging to placentas from seronegative mothers (SN) and 6 pools (TC4 to TC9) from seropositive mothers (SP). Each pool consisted of a binomial of a female/male newborn and a vaginal/caesarean delivery. The cDNA Libraries were prepared according to Illumina''s TruSeq Stranded Total RNA with Ribo-Zero Gold for Human and a Hiseq 2.500 Illumina platform with 100 bp paired-end reads was used for sequencing
Alterations in Placental Gene Expression of Pregnant Women with Chronic Chagas Disease.
cAMP receptor protein (CRP, also known as the catabolite activator protein [CAP]) is arguably the best-studied of the global transcription factors of E coli. CRP alone is responsible for regulating at least 283 operons. Upon binding cAMP, the CRP dimer binds DNA and directly interacts with RNA polymerase (RNAP). At Class II promoters, CRP binds near position -41,5 relative to the transcription start site and contacts the amino-terminal domain of the RNAP subunit (RNAP-NTD). This interaction requires AR2, a patch of primarily positively charged residues (H19, H21, E96, and K101) that interact with negatively charged residues on RNAP-NTD. Acetylome analyses consistently detect lysine 100 (K100) of CRP as acetylated. Since K100 is adjacent to the positively charged AR2, we hypothesized that the K100 positive charge may also play a role in CRP function. We further hypothesized that acetylation of K100 would neutralize this positive charge, leading to a potential regulatory mechanism
Influence of Glucose Availability and CRP Acetylation on the Genome-Wide Transcriptional Response of <i>Escherichia coli</i>: Assessment by an Optimized Factorial Microarray Analysis.
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We analyzed the changes in the spinal cord transcriptome after a spinal cord contusion injury and MSC or OEC transplantation. The cells were injected immediately or 7 days after the injury. The mRNA of the spinal cord injured segment was extracted and analyzed by microarray at 2 and 7 days after cell grafting.
Gene expression changes in the injured spinal cord following transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells or olfactory ensheathing cells.
DNA Damage Regulated Autophagy Modulator 1 (DRAM1) is a stress-inducible regulator of autophagy and cell death. DRAM1 has been implicated in cancer, myocardial infarction, and infectious diseases, but the molecular and cellular functions of this transmembrane protein remain poorly understood. Previously, we have proposed DRAM1 as a host resistance factor for tuberculosis (TB) and a potential target for host-directed anti-infective therapies. In this study, we generated a zebrafish dram1 mutant and investigated its loss-of-function effects during Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) infection, a widely used model in TB research. In agreement with previous knockdown analysis, dram1 mutation increased the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Mm infection. RNA sequencing revealed major effects of Dram1 deficiency on metabolic, immune response, and cell death pathways during Mm infection, whereas only minor effects on proteinase and metabolic pathways were found under uninfected conditions. Furthermore, unchallenged dram1 mutants did not display overt autophagic defects, while autophagic targeting of Mm was reduced in absence of Dram1, despite overall increased Lc3-II accumulation. The phagocytic ability of dram1 mutants was unaffected, but acidification of Mm-containing vesicles was strongly reduced, indicating that Dram1 is required for phagosome maturation. By in vivo imaging we observed that Dram1-deficient macrophages fail to restrict Mm during early stages of infection. The resulting enhanced bacterial burden phenotype could be rescued by knockdown of inflammatory caspase (caspa) and gasdermin (gsdmeb), demonstrating pyroptosis as the mechanism underlying premature cell death of Mm-infected macrophages in dram1 mutants. Collectively, these data demonstrate that dissemination of mycobacterial infection in zebrafish larvae is promoted in absence of Dram1 due to reduced maturation of mycobacteria-containing vesicles, failed intracellular containment, and consequent pyroptotic cell death of infected macrophages. These results provide new evidence that Dram1 plays a central role in host resistance to intracellular infection, acting at the crossroad of autophagy and cell death. Overall design: Mutant embryos and their controls were manually dechorionated at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) and at 28 hpf they were infected by injecting 150 or 300 colony forming units of M. marinum strain M into the blood island, or mock-injected with PBS/2%PVP. After injections embryos were transferred into fresh egg water containing 0.003% 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (Sigma-Aldrich) to prevent melanisation and incubated for 4 days at 28,5Â°C. After the incubation period, infected and uninfected mutants and their controls were imaged and groups of 20 embryos were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and RNA was isolated for Illumina RNAseq analysis.
Deficiency in the autophagy modulator Dram1 exacerbates pyroptotic cell death of Mycobacteria-infected macrophages.
We used different zebrafish transgenic lines to sort macrophages, neutrophils and immature lymphoid cells from 5-6 day old zebrafish larvae and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparison between the different transcriptomes and gene ontology analysis revealed specificities for each cell population. Comparison with previously published data showed that zebrafish larval macrophages expressed several known human M1 and M2 macrophages. Transcriptome analysis of uninfected and infected macrophages from embryos infected by of Mycobacterium marinum revealed infection induced transcriptional changes and a shift towards M1 transcriptomic signature. Overall design: Embryos were grown into egg water refresh every day and incubated for 5 or 6 days at 28Â°C. 0.003% 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (Sigma-Aldrich) was added after 1 day to prevent melanisation. After the incubation period, embryos were dissociated into single cell suspension by Trypsin treatment and fluorescent cells were sorted by FACS. RNA extraction and library preparation were performed as previously described. (Rougeot et al., 2014, Methods Mol Biol 1197:41-66). For infection experiments, zebrafish embryos were manually dechorionated at 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) and were infected by injection in the caudal vein of 125 colony forming unit of Mycobacterium marinum M strain expressing GFP. Infected larvae were collected for FACS sorting 5 day post infection.
Corrigendum: RNAseq Profiling of Leukocyte Populations in Zebrafish Larvae Reveals a <i>cxcl11</i> Chemokine Gene as a Marker of Macrophage Polarization During Mycobacterial Infection.
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Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones widely used as pharmaceutical interventions, which act mainly by regulating gene expression levels. A large fraction of patients (~30%), especially those of African descent, show a weak response to treatment. To interrogate the contribution of variable transcriptional response to inter-ethnic differences, we measured in vitro lymphocyte GC sensitivity (LGS) and transcriptome-wide response to GCs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from African-American and European-American healthy donors. We found that transcriptional response after 8hrs treatment was significantly correlated with variation in LGS within and between populations. We found that NFKB1, a gene previously found to predict LGS within populations, was more strongly downregulated in European-Americans on average. NFKB1 could not completely explain population differences, however, and we found an additional 177 genes with population differences in the average log2 fold change (FDR<0.05), most of which also showed a weaker transcriptional response in AfricanAmericans. These results suggest that inter-ethnic differences in GC sensitivity reflect variation in transcriptional response at many genes, including regulators with large effects (e.g. NFKB1) and numerous other genes with smaller effects.
Inter-ethnic differences in lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids reflect variation in transcriptional response.
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Resveratrol, a natural phytoestrogen found in red wine and a variety of plants, is reported to have protective effects against lung cancer, however there is very little work directed towards the understanding of the mechanism of action of resveratrol in lung cancer. In this study we used an experimental approach to understand the biological activity and molecular mechanisms of resveratrol in A549 lung cancer cells. Gene expression profiles were compiled using an oligonucleotide microarray to determine altered expression levels in resveratrol treated cells.
Molecular mechanisms of resveratrol action in lung cancer cells using dual protein and microarray analyses.
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Escherichia coli 8624 and the isogenic mutants in qseE, qseF and qseG are compared to determine the role that each of the genes play in regulation of the transcriptome. These results are verified by qRT-PCR and reveal the important role of this three-component signaling system.
The two-component system QseEF and the membrane protein QseG link adrenergic and stress sensing to bacterial pathogenesis.
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Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are the most heritable of all tumors. However, there are still cases that are not explained by mutations in the known genes. We aimed to identify the genetic cause of disease in a patient strongly suspected of having hereditary tumors. We identified a novel de novo mutation in DNMT3A, affecting a highly conserved residue. Among other results from other techniques, a different global expression profile was observed in the patient carrying the mutated DNMT3A compared to controls (parents) by RNA-seq
Gain-of-function mutations in DNMT3A in patients with paraganglioma.
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Upon fertilisation, the highly differentiated gametes reprogram to a totipotent state to initiate a new developmental programme. Approximately half of the mammalian genome is composed of repetitive elements, including retrotransposons, some of which are transcriptionally activated after fertilisation. It is generally assumed that retrotransposons become activated as a side-effect of the large chromatin remodelling underlying the epigenetic reprogramming of the gametes. Here, we have used a targeted epigenomic approach to address whether specific families of retrotransposons play a direct role in chromatin organisation and developmental progression after fertilisation. Using this approach, we demonstrate that precocious silencing of LINE-1 reduces chromatin accessibility, while their prolonged activation prevents gradual chromatin compaction, natural to developmental progression. Preventing LINE-1 activation and interfering with their silencing results in a reduced developmental rate independently of the coding nature of the LINE-1 transcript, suggesting that LINE-1 functions primarily at the chromatin level. Our data suggest that activation of LINE-1 regulates global chromatin accessibility at the beginning of development and indicate that activation of retrotransposons is an integral part of the developmental programme. Overall design: RNAseq was done on pooled injected embryos(4-5) as indicated in methods.
LINE-1 activation after fertilization regulates global chromatin accessibility in the early mouse embryo.
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