Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short- term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization.
Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Maize LEAFBLADELESS1 (LBL1) and Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) play orthologous roles in the biogenesis of 21 nucleotide trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs). The phenotypes conditioned by mutation of lbl1 and SGS3 are, however, strikingly different, suggesting that the activities of these small RNA biogenesis components, or the tasiRNAs and their targets might not be entirely conserved. To investigate the basis for this phenotypic variation, we compared the small RNA content between wild-type and lbl1 seedling apices. We show that LBL1 affects all major classes of small RNAs, and reveal unexpected crosstalk between tasiRNA biogenesis and other small RNA pathways regulating miRNAs, retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. We further identified genomic regions generating phased siRNAs, including numerous loci generating 22-nt phased small RNAs from long hairpin RNAs or overlapping antisense transcripts not previously described in other plant species. By combining both analyses, we identified nine TAS loci, all belonging to the conserved TAS3 family. Contrary to other plant species, no TAS loci targeted by a single miRNA were identified. Information from target prediction, RNAseq, and PARE analyses identified the tasiARFs as the major functional tasiRNAs in the maize vegetative apex where they regulate expression of ARF3 homologs. As such, divergence in TAS pathways is unlikely to account for the distinct phenotypes of tasiRNA biogenesis mutants in Arabidopsis and maize. Instead, the data suggests variation in the spatiotemporal regulation of ARF3, or divergence in its function, as a plausible basis for the dramatic phenotypic differences observed upon mutation of SGS3/lbl1 in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall design: An analysis of tasiRNA biogenesis, activity, and contribution to developmental phenotypes in the maize leaf. Data generated includes small RNA sequencing data and mRNA sequencing data. All data was generated in both wild type and lbl1 mutant maize leaf apices. Three replicates were generated for each genotype for the small RNA data. Two of these replicates were also used for the RNA-seq data.
Genome-wide analysis of leafbladeless1-regulated and phased small RNAs underscores the importance of the TAS3 ta-siRNA pathway to maize development.
Age, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The SAGA co-activator has been implicated in the regulation of a smal subset of genes in budding yeast in transcriptomic analyses performed in steady-state levels of RNA.
SAGA Is a General Cofactor for RNA Polymerase II Transcription.
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Polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, have recently received widespread interest due to their ability to mimic effects of calorie restriction. The objective of the present study was to gain more insight into the effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and underlying processes. Nine healthy obese men were supplemented with placebo and 150mg/day resveratrol for 30 days, separated by a 4-week washout period. A postprandial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was collected to assess adipose tissue morphology and gene expression using microarray analysis. Resveratrol significantly decreased adipocyte size, with a shift towards a reduction in the proportion of large and very large adipocytes and an increase in small adipocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of Wnt, Notch and BMP/TGF- signaling pathways and upregulation of pathways involved in cell cycle after resveratrol supplementation, suggesting enhanced adipogenesis. Furthermore, the lysosomal/phagosomal pathway and the transcription factor EB were upregulated, reflecting an alternative pathway of lipid breakdown by autophagy. These data suggest that adipose tissue is an important target tissue for the effects of resveratrol in humans, but further research is necessary to investigate whether it translates into an improved adipose tissue function.
The effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression patterns in obese men.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Disease, Treatment, Race, SubjectView Samples
Epidemiological data show that the immune system may control or promote emergence and growth of a neoplastic lymphomatous clone. Conversely, systemic lymphomas, especially myeloma and CLL, are associated with clinical immunodeficiency. This prospective controlled study demonstrates substantially reduced circulating T helper cells, predominantly naive CD4+ cells, in patients with non-leukemic follicular and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, but not in monoclonal gammopathy and early CLL. These numerical changes were correlated with a preactivated phenotype, hyperreactivity in vitro, presenescence, and a Th2 shift of peripheral T helper cells. No prominent alterations were found in the regulatory T cell compartment. Gene expression profiling of in vitro-stimulated CD4+ cells revealed an independent second alteration of T helper cell physiology which was most pronounced in early CLL but also detectable in FL/eMZL. This pattern consisted of downregulation of proximal and intermediate T-cell receptor signaling cascades and globally reduced cytokine secretion. Both types of T cell dysfunction may contribute to significant immunodeficiency in non-leukemic indolent B-cell lymphomas as demonstrated by refractoriness to hepatitis B vaccination. The precise definition of systemic T cell dysfunction serves as the basis to study its prognostic impact, its relationship to the established influence of the lymphoma microenvironment, and its therapeutic manipulation
Definition and characterization of the systemic T-cell dysregulation in untreated indolent B-cell lymphoma and very early CLL.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound capable of preventing chemically induced colitis in mice.
Protective effects of dietary curcumin in mouse model of chemically induced colitis are strain dependent.
The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 KLUH (KLU)/CYP78A5 promotes organ growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. To identify genes regulated by KLU activity, homozygous klu-2 mutants carrying constructs for EtOH-inducible overexpression of wild-type KLU (35S::AlcR-AlcA::KLU) or of enzymatically inactive KLU protein (35S::AlcR-AlcA::KLUmut) were induced with EtOH and sampled at 90 min and 240 min after induction for gene expression changes.
Control of plant organ size by KLUH/CYP78A5-dependent intercellular signaling.
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The obese, insulin resistant state is characterized by impairments in lipid metabolism. Dietary polyphenols might improve these deteriorations. We have previously shown that 3-days supplementation of combined Epigallocatechin-gallate and Resveratrol (E+R) increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by improved metabolic flexibility after a high-fat mixed-meal (HFMM) in men. The present study aimed to investigate whether these short-term effects translate into longer-term improvement of insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind study, 42 overweight subjects (21 male, 382 yrs, BMI 29.70.5 kg/m2, HOMA-IR 2.10.2) received either E+R (300 and 80 mg/d, respectively) or placebo (PLA) for 12 weeks (3 months). Before (t0) and after (t3) intervention, tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with stable isotope infusion. Fasting and postprandial (HFMM) lipid metabolism was assessed using indirect calorimetry and blood sampling. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipolysis was measured using microdialysis in men and skeletal muscle biopsies were collected to assess mitochondrial function and gene expression alterations via microarray analysis. E+R supplementation increased fasting (P=0.06) and postprandial (P=0.03) fat oxidation but did not alter energy expenditure compared to PLA. This was accompanied by an E+R-induced increase in oxidative capacity in permeabilized muscle fibers (p<0.05). Moreover, E+R supplementation attenuated the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentration that was observed in the PLA group (AUC, p<0.05), and tended to decrease visceral fat mass (P=0.09). Finally, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and suppression of endogenous glucose production were not affected by E+R supplementation. 12 weeks E+R supplementation increased whole-body fat oxidation and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, but this did not translate into increased tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects.
Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
Study on changes in gene expression in primary cultures of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes to electric stimulation.
Electrical signals affect the cardiomyocyte transcriptome independently of contraction.
Hepatic gene expression analysis in mice fed control diet or diets supplemented with 1% Fraction 1 (haxane) or Fraction 2 (methanol) of Boswellia Serrata
Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis.
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