Natural CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a unique T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. Recent studies provide evidence for the heterogeneity and plasticity of the Treg cell lineage. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we compared gene expression profiles and histone methylation status on two histone H3 lysine residues (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of expanded FOXP3+ and corresponding FOXP3-losing Treg cells. DGE assay showed that human Treg cells down-regulated Treg signature genes, whereas up-regulated a set of Th lineages-associated genes, especially for Th2, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13, after in vitro expansion. Furthermore, we found that reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with histone modifications, as shown by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within down-regulated Treg signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, although with no significant changes in H3K27me3 modification. Thus, our results indicate that human Treg cells could convert into a Th-like cells upon in vitro expansion, displaying a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage associated genes, and the histone methylation might contribute to such conversion. Overall design: mRNA profiles of in-vitro-expanded FOXP3+ Treg and FOXP3-losing Treg cells generated by deep sequencing.
Histone methylation mediates plasticity of human FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells by modulating signature gene expressions.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can regulate many host cellular gene expressions participating in the HBV life cycle, liver inflammation and hepatocellular injury. However, the underlying mechanism of differential gene expression is not understood. We report here a genome-wide analysis of histone methylation on two histone H3 lysine residues (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) and gene expression profiles in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells. We found that specific correlation exists between gene expression and the amounts of H3K4me3 (positive correlation) and H3K27me3 (negative correlation) across the gene body. These correlations displayed three distinct modes (repressive, active and poised), reflecting different functions of these genes in the HBV life cycle, liver inflammation and hepatocellular injury. Furthermore, a permissive chromatin state of each gene was established by a combination of different histone modifications. Our findings reveal a complex regulation by histone methylation in differential gene expression and suggest that histone methylation may be responsible for the HBV life cycle, liver inflammation and hepatocellular injury induced by HBV. Overall design: A large-scale analysis of gene expression of 2 different cell types (HepG2, HepG2.2.15) using a digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling approach.
Telbivudine treatment corrects HBV-induced epigenetic alterations in liver cells of patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Sequencing of the 3' end of poly(A)+ RNA identifies cleavage and polyadenylation sites (pAs) and measures transcript expression. We previously developed a method, 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), to address mispriming issues that often plague 3' end sequencing. Here we report a new version, named 3'READS+, which has vastly improved accuracy and sensitivity. Using a special locked nucleic acid oligo to capture poly(A)+ RNA and to remove bulk of the poly(A) tail, 3'READS+ generates RNA fragments with an optimal number of terminal As that balance data quality and detection of genuine pAs. With improved RNA ligation steps for efficiency, the method shows much higher sensitivity (over two orders of magnitude) compared to the previous version. Using 3'READS+, we have uncovered a sizable fraction of previously overlooked pAs located next to or within a stretch of adenylate residues in human genes, and more accurately assessed the frequency of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) in HeLa cells (~50%). 3'READS+ will be a useful tool to accurately study APA and to analyze gene expression by 3' end counting, especially when the amount of input total RNA is limited. Overall design: Nine 3''READS+ libraries were made with different amounts (100 ng, 200 ng, 400 ng, 1000 ng, 5000 ng, 15000 ng) of input Hela RNA.
3'READS+, a sensitive and accurate method for 3' end sequencing of polyadenylated RNA.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
In the current study, we performed transcriptome profiling of the mouse PFC to determine the dynamic changes in the Prefrontal cortex (PFC)after repeated cocaine treatment. In the current study, we observed dynamic changes in the transcriptome profiling of the PFC of repeated-cocaine treated mice, and found that distinct pathways were involved in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages of cocaine withdrawal. The main findings of our results include: 1) energy metabolism and protein metabolism pathways showed gradual or fluctuant decrease after cocaine withdrawal; 2) ERK pathway showed persistent changes after cocaine withdrawal; 3) plasticity related pathways, such as long-term potentiation, the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and the axon guidance pathway, showed a fluctuant increase after cocaine withdrawal. Our results suggest that maladaptive neural plasticity associated with psychostimulant dependence may be an ongoing degenerative process with dynamic changes in the gene network at different stages of withdrawal. Overall design: The bilateral PFC was excised from each animal at either 2 h, 24 h, or 7 days after the final injection of cocaine. To account for inter-animal variations, we obtained 2 biological replicates for each treatment group, with each replicate representing the PFCs pooled from 5 animals. Pair-end 75-nt sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq2000.
Dynamic Expression Changes in the Transcriptome of the Prefrontal Cortex after Repeated Exposure to Cocaine in Mice.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Heterosis has long been exploited for crop breeding; however, the genetic mechanisms, particularly the initial establishment of heterosis during the early vegetative growth phase, remain elusive. The biggest challenge for that is to exclude noise genes from the identified heterosis-related candidates. Herein, we use nutrient-deficient hybrid with no measurable growth heterosis as control to filter potential background noise differentially expressed genes
Dissimilar Manifestation of Heterosis in Superhybrid Rice at Early-Tillering Stage under Nutrient-Deficient and Nutrient-Sufficient Condition.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
We found that primary root (PR) is more resistant to salt stress compared with crown roots (CR) and seminal roots (SR). To understand better salt stress responses in maize roots, six RNA libraries were generated and sequenced from primary root (PR), primary roots under salt stress (PR-salt) , seminal roots (SR), seminal roots under salt stress (SR-salt), crown roots (CR), and crown roots under salt stress (CR-salt). Through integrative analysis, we identified 444 genes regulated by salt stress in maize roots, and found that the expression patterns of some genes and enzymes involved in important pathway under salt stress, such as reactive oxygen species scavenging, plant hormone signal perception and transduction, and compatible solutes synthesis differed dramatically in different maize roots. 16 of differentially expressed genes were selected for further validation with quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR).We demonstrate that the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes are highly diversified in different maize roots. The differentially expressed genes are correlated with the differential growth responses to salt stress in maize roots. Our studies provide deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms about the differential growth responses of different root types in response to environmental stimuli in planta. Overall design: Examination of three root types of maize under salt treatment for understanding the different responding mechenism to salt stress.
Comparative transcriptome profiling of the maize primary, crown and seminal root in response to salinity stress.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The mesenteric lymph nodes represent the immune response to eggs in schistosome infections,and the analysis of gene expression profiles of the mesenteric lymph nodes from the Vac-Cha (vaccinated with UV attenuated cercariae and challenged with normal cercariae)and Inf-Con (infected with normal cercariae) groups.
Immune events associated with high level protection against Schistosoma japonicum infection in pigs immunized with UV-attenuated cercariae.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Nervous system (NS) development relies on coherent up-regulation of extensive sets of genes in a precise spatiotemporal manner. How such transcriptome-wide effects are orchestrated at the molecular level remains an open question. Here we show that 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of multiple neuronal transcripts contain A/U-rich cis-elements (AREs) recognized by tristetraprolin (TTP/Zfp36), an RNA-binding protein previously reported to destabilize mRNAs encoding predominantly cytokines, growth factors and proto-oncogenes. We further demonstrate that the efficiency of ARE-dependent mRNA degradation declines during neural differentiation due to a decrease in the TTP protein expression mediated by the NS-enriched microRNA miR-9. Our experiments with transgenenic cell lines suggest that TTP down-regulation is essential for proper neuronal differentiation. Moreover, inactivation of TTP in neuroblastoma cells or mouse embryonic fibroblasts induces major changes in their transcriptomes accompanied by significantly elevated expression of NS-specific genes. We conclude that the newly identified miR-9/TTP circuitry limits unscheduled accumulation of neuronal mRNAs in non-neuronal cells and ensures coordinated up-regulation of these transcripts in neurons. Overall design: 3''READS of undifferentiated and 3.5-day differentiated P19 cells
A post-transcriptional mechanism pacing expression of neural genes with precursor cell differentiation status.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Expression data from human induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs) and Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) with treatment actinomycin D
Global analysis reveals multiple pathways for unique regulation of mRNA decay in induced pluripotent stem cells.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below.
Sexually dimorphic genome-wide binding of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) determines male-female differences in the expression of hepatic lipid processing genes in mice.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples