Activation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF-alpha and the NF-kappaB pathway promotes inflammation mediated tumor progression.
The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ZNF395 is controlled by IĸB kinase-signaling and activates genes involved in the innate immune response and cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
This study sought to provide a novel ex vivo model for analyzing healing kinetics and gene expression of primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGF) within collagen scaffolds.
Cell population kinetics of collagen scaffolds in ex vivo oral wound repair.
Specimen partView Samples
The Drosophila midgut is an ideal model system to study molecular mechanisms that interfere with the intestinal stem cellsâ€™ (ISCs) ability to function in tissue homeostasis. Due to the lack of a combination of molecular markers suitable to isolate ISCs from aged intestines, it has been a major challenge to study endogenous molecular changes of ISCs during aging. Our FACS-based approach using the esg-GAL4, UAS-GFP fly line allowed the isolation of a cell population enriched for ISCs from young and old midguts by their small size, little granularity and low GFP intensity. The isolated ISCs were subsequently used for RNA sequencing to identify endogenous changes in the transcriptome of young versus old ISCs. Overall design: Cell populations enriched for ISCs isolated from young (6-8 days old) and old (59-65 days old) midguts were sorted. Cells from three different batches of young and old midguts were subjected to Next Generation Sequencing using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx.
Nipped-A regulates intestinal stem cell proliferation in <i>Drosophila</i>.
Age, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Epilepsy is a major neurological disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. The processes that lead to the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) are largely unknown. Levetiracetam is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED) that in the kindling model inhibits epileptogenesis in addition to being effective in controlling established epilepsy. The mechanisms of action of levetiracetam as an AED and an antiepileptogenic drug are unknown. By identifying the effect of chronic levetiracetam therapy on gene expression in the brain we hope to be able to identify genes that are involved in epileptogenesis. By comparing the gene expression profiles of levetiracetam and phenytoin treatments, we hope to be able to distinguish between genes that are important for the antiepileptic (anti-seizure) effect and genes that are important for the antiepileptogenic effect of levetiracetam. Phenytoin is a well-established AED; its mechanism of action involves inhibition of sodium channels. In contrast to levetiracetam, available data suggest that phenytoin in certain situations may enhance rather than inhibit the development of epilepsy.
Region-specific changes in gene expression in rat brain after chronic treatment with levetiracetam or phenytoin.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
During transcription initiation, the TFIIH-kinase Kin28/Cdk7 marks RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Here we describe a structure-guided chemical approach to covalently and specifically inactivate Kin28 kinase activity in vivo. This method of irreversible inactivation recapitulates both the lethal phenotype and the key molecular signatures that result from genetically disrupting Kin28 function in vivo. Inactivating Kin28 impacts promoter release to differing degrees and reveals a “checkpoint” during the transition to productive elongation. While promoter-proximal pausing is not observed in budding yeast, inhibition of Kin28 attenuates elongation-licensing signals, resulting in Pol II accumulation at the +2 nucleosome and reduced transition to productive elongation. Furthermore, upon inhibition, global stabilization of mRNA masks different degrees of reduction in nascent transcription. This study resolves long-standing controversies on the role of Kin28 in transcription and provides a rational approach to irreversibly inhibit other kinases in vivo. Overall design: Total RNA was collected from wild-type and analog-sensitive Kin28 strains treated with reversible inhibitor 1-NAPP-1, irreversible inhibitor CMK, and solvent control DMSO. Equivalent ratios of S. pombe : S. cerevisiae cells were added to each sample before RNA extraction for normalization of read counts after sequencing. Nascent RNA was purified from total RNA by 4-thiouracil labeling, biotinylation, and streptavidin-pulldown. As a negative control, nascent RNA was also extracted from total RNA from cells that had not been treated with 4-thiouracil.
Engineered Covalent Inactivation of TFIIH-Kinase Reveals an Elongation Checkpoint and Results in Widespread mRNA Stabilization.
Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
The specific contribution of the two TNF-receptors Tnfr1 and Tnfr2 to TNF-induced inflammation in the glomerulus is unknown. In mice, TNF exposure induces glomerular expression of inflammatory mediators like adhesion molecules and chemokines in vivo, and glomerular accumulation of leukocytes.
Distinct contributions of TNF receptor 1 and 2 to TNF-induced glomerular inflammation in mice.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
We use gene expression data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastima, epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-folded: First, we used a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrated that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between the genes up-regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provided evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we studied the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrated that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM demonstrates similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also demonstrates some differences with each of these signatures that is partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together this data sheds light on role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme.
Investigating the link between molecular subtypes of glioblastoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and CD133 cell surface protein.
Specimen partView Samples
The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) has been proposed to regulate target genes in the absence of triiodothyronine (T3), through the recruitment of the corepressors, NCoR and SMRT. NCoR and SMRT may thus play a key role in both hypothyroidism and resistance to thyroid hormone, though this has never been tested in vivo. To accomplish this we developed mice that express in the liver a NCoR protein (L-NCoRID) that cannot interact with the TR. L-NCoRID mice develop normally, however when made hypothyroid the repression of many positively regulated T3-target genes is abrogated, demonstrating that NCoR plays a specific and sufficient role in repression by the unliganded TR. Remarkably, in the euthyroid state, expression of many T3-targets are also upregulated in L-NCoRID mice, demonstrating that NCoR also determines the magnitude of the response to T3 in euthyroid animals. While positive T3 targets were upregulated in L-NCoRID mice in the hypo and euthyroid state there was less effect seen on negatively regulated T3 target genes. Thus, NCoR is a specific regulator of T3-action in vivo and mediates the activity of the unliganded TR. Furthermore, NCoR may play a key role in determining the differences in individual responses to similar levels of circulating T3.
The nuclear corepressor, NCoR, regulates thyroid hormone action in vivo.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The comparison of the cell-specific transcriptomes of bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells from successive developmental stages of maize leafs reveals that the number of genes preferentially transcribed in one cell type or the other varies considerably from the sink-source transition to mature photosynthetic stages. The number of differentially expressed (DE) genes is maximal at a stage well prior to full maturity, including those that encode key functions for C4 photosynthesis. The developmental dynamics of BS/M differential expression can be used to identify candidates for other C4-related functions and to simplify the identification of specific pathways members from otherwise complex gene families. The candidates for C4-related transcription factors identified with this developmental DE strategy overlap with those identified in studies using alternative strategies. Overall design: Nine day old third leaves of maize sections, located at -1 cm, +4 cm and +9 cm (leaf tip), relative to the sink-source transition, were collected. BS and M cells were captured from each section. There are two duplications for each section and each cell types. A total of 12 libraries were constructed for RNA-seq.
Developmental dynamics of Kranz cell transcriptional specificity in maize leaf reveals early onset of C4-related processes.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples