Background: Identification and purification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) lead to new therapeutic targets; however, there has been no study to identify and isolated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) CSC. Therefore the clinical significance and its target remain unknown. This study aimed to identify pNET CSCs and characterize therapeutic candidate for pNET CSCs. Methods: We isolated CSCs sorting by ALDH activity in pNET surgical section and cell lines. We verified whether these cells have the property of stemness in vivo and in vitro. Additionally in order to acquire CSC gene profile, genome-wide gene expression profiles were investigated using a microarray technique. Results: ALDHhigh cells, but not control bulk cells, formed spheres, proliferated in hypoxia as well as normoxia and promoted cell motility, which are features of CSCs. Injection of as few as 10 ALDHhigh cells led to subcutaneous tumor formation, and 105 ALDHhigh cells established metastases but not control bulk cells in mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed that genes associated with mesenchymal stem cell, including CD73, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were overexpressed in ALDHhigh cells. APCP, which is CD73 inhibitor, inhibited sphere formation and cell motility in ALDHhigh cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition were observed in ALDHhigh cells in vivo. Conclusions: We identified ALDHhigh cells of pNET and elucidated that they have stemness property. Furthermore we identified CD73 as a target of ALDHhigh cells. CD73 is a promising novel target of pNET CSCs.
CD73 as a therapeutic target for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor stem cells.
Cell lineView Samples
We report that Tripartite motif-containing 33 (Trim33), a protein that was previously associated with TGF-beta signaling, determines the pathogenic function of Th17 cells. Trim33 deficiency in T cells resulted in resistance to an autoimmune disease model. Lack of Trim33 did not impact TGF-beta signaling in mediating Foxp3 gene expression but greatly reduced TGF-beta induction of IL-17 production during Th17 cell differentiation. Importantly, we found TGF-beta not only increased IL-17 but also suppressed IL-10 expression; absence of Trim33 or Smad2 but not Smad4 in T cells enhanced IL-10 expression. In a Smad2-dependent manner, Trim33 was recruited to Il17 and Il10 gene loci and was crucial in appropriate histone modification accompanying Th17 differentiation.
Trim33 mediates the proinflammatory function of Th17 cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Background & Aims: The recurrence determines the postoperative prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is unknown whether de novo HCCs derive from the liver with disability of an organic anion transport. This study was designed to elucidate the link between such transporters and the multicentric occurrence (MO) after radical hepatectomy.
Mitochondrial metabolism in the noncancerous liver determine the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stage, SubjectView Samples
Expression profiles in mouse liver exposed to long-term gamma-irradiation were examined to assess in vivo effects of low dose-rate radiation. Three groups of male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to whole body irradiation at dose-rates of 17-20 mGy/day, 0.86-1.0 mGy/day or 0.042-0.050 mGy/day for 401-485 days (cumulative doses were approximately 8 Gy, 0.4 Gy or 0.02 Gy, respectively).
Gene expression profiles in mouse liver after long-term low-dose-rate irradiation with gamma rays.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
For the clinical treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is important not only to improve the airflow limitation by bronchodilation but also to suppress emphysema by controlling inflammation. In this study, we have screened for compounds that prevent elastase-induced airspace enlargement in mice from medicines already used clinically. Mepenzolate bromide, a muscarinic antagonist used to treat gastrointestinal disorders was selected. Intratracheal administration or inhalation of mepenzolate bromide decreased the severity of elastase-induced airspace enlargement, alteration of lung mechanics and respiratory dysfunction. While mepenzolate bromide showed bronchodilatory activity, most of other muscarinic antagonists tested did not improve the elastase-induced pulmonary disorders. Mepenzolate bromide suppressed elastase-induced pulmonary inflammatory responses and production of superoxide anions, and reduced the level of cigarette smoke-induced airspace enlargement and alteration of lung mechanics. Based on these results, we propose that this drug is therapeutically effective for COPD as a consequence of both its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory activities.
Mepenzolate bromide displays beneficial effects in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Treatment, TimeView Samples
Analysis of Foxp3(+)epigenetics(-) T cells, Foxp3(-)epigenetics(+) T cells, and Foxp3(+)epigenetics(+) T cells. Results indicate regulatory T cell (Treg) ontogenesis requires two independent processes, expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 and establishment of Treg epigenetic programs induced by T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation.
T cell receptor stimulation-induced epigenetic changes and Foxp3 expression are independent and complementary events required for Treg cell development.
Specimen partView Samples
Wild-type cells were cultured at 30 deg and cells were harvested. Total RNAs were purified from 3 populations.
Mapping of long-range associations throughout the fission yeast genome reveals global genome organization linked to transcriptional regulation.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Background & Aims: Recent genomic studies have identified frequent mutations of AT-rich interactive domain 2 (ARID2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but it is not still understood how ARID2 exhibits tumor suppressor activities. Methods: We established the ARID2 knockout HCC cell lines by using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and investigated the gene expression profiles and biological functions. Results: Bioinformatic analysis indicated that UV-response genes were negatively regulated in the ARID2-KO cells, and they were certainly sensitized to UV irradiation. ARID2 depletion attenuated nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage sites introduced by exposure to UV as well as chemical compounds known as carcinogens for HCC, benzo[a]pyrene and FeCl3, since XPG could not be accumulated without ARID2. By using large-scale public data sets, we validated that ARID2 knockout could lead to similar molecular changes between in vitro and in vivo, and moreover observed a higher number of somatic mutations in the ARID2-mutated subtypes than that in the ARID2 wild-type across various types of cancers including HCC. Conclusions: We provided evidence that ARID2 knockout could contribute to disruption of NER process through inhibiting the recruitment of XPG, resulting in susceptibility to carcinogens and potential hypermutation. These findings have far-reaching implications for therapeutic targets in cancers harboring ARID2 mutations.
Classification of primary liver cancer with immunosuppression mechanisms and correlation with genomic alterations.
Specimen partView Samples
We report transcriptome of nascent teratoma cell-derived pluripotent stem cells, Dnd1-KD ESCs and control ESC by RNA-seq. Overall design: RNA-seq of two independent pluripotent stem cell lines derived form nascent teratoma cell in new-born testis of Dnd1-deficient mice, control E14tg2a ESCs and Dnd1-KD ESCs in dupulicate by using Illumina HiSeq2500.
Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from nascent undifferentiated teratoma.
Disease, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have considerable malignant potential. Frequent somatic mutations and loss of DAXX protein expression have been frequently found in PanNETs. DAXX is known as a transcriptional repressor, however, molecular functions underlying loss of DAXX remain unclear in PanNETs.
Tumor suppressor functions of DAXX through histone H3.3/H3K9me3 pathway in pancreatic NETs.