Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against pathogens in the lungs of all mammalian species and therefore may constitute an appropriate therapeutic target cell in the treatment and prevention of opportunistic airway infections. Analysis of alveolar macrophages from several species has revealed a unique cellular phenotype and transcriptome, presumably linked to their distinct airway environment and function in host defense. The current study extends these findings to the horse.
Comparative transcriptome analysis of equine alveolar macrophages.
Preterm birth is an important unsolved clinical problem. Despite advanced treatments, infants who survive prematurity remain at increased risk for permanent disabilities. In approximately one-third of cases, prematurity is related to infection and/or inflammation, which renders hostile the normally receptive intrauterine environment. Proinflammatory cytokines provoke up-regulation of genes that promote uterine contractions. Using monolayer cultures of human cervical fibroblast cells as a model, we profiled the global pattern of gene expression in response to cytokine challenge.
Progesterone Receptor Signaling Selectively Modulates Cytokine-Induced Global Gene Expression in Human Cervical Stromal Cells.
Transcription profiling of wild type, relA-, and relA-spoT-, crp-, dksA-, rpoS-, lrp- mutant strains of E. coli starved for isoleucine
The global, ppGpp-mediated stringent response to amino acid starvation in Escherichia coli.
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Pemetrexed is an antifolate drug used in the treatment of lung cancer. EA.hy 926 cells grown under low (Lo) and normal (Hi) folate conditions were treated with PMX. Microarray analysis was used to examine changes in gene expression due to PMX treatment.
Pemetrexed alters folate phenotype and inflammatory profile in EA.hy 926 cells grown under low-folate conditions.
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The cell surface mucin MUC1 is an important host factor limiting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) pathogenesis in both humans and mice by providing a protective barrier and modulating mucosal epithelial and leukocyte responses.
Influence of the MUC1 Cell Surface Mucin on Gastric Mucosal Gene Expression Profiles in Response to <i>Helicobacter pylori</i> Infection in Mice.
Hdac3 is an important target of HDAC inhibitors used in the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. In order to gain an understanding of Hdac3 function in T cells,we deleted Hdac3 from early mouse thymocytes using LCK-Cre. Hdac3 deletion resulted in a loss of single positive thymocytes due to a defect in positive selection at the double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development. To better characterize this defect, we sorted the DP1 and DP2 populations to for gene expression profiling. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from DP1 (GFP+CD4+CD8+CD5loTCRblo) or DP2 (GFP+CD4+CD8+CD5hiTCRbint) thymocytes isolated by FACS from Hdac3+/+ or Hdac3F/F LCK-Cre+ animals. Libraries were constructed from rRNA-depleted total RNA pools to identify altered gene expression in DP populations following Hdac3 deletion.
Histone Deacetylase 3 Is Required for Efficient T Cell Development.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The transcriptomics changes induced in the human liver cell line HepG2 by low and high doses of acetaminophen and solvent controls after treatment for 4 time points (12h, 24h, 48h and 72h)
Increased mitochondrial ROS formation by acetaminophen in human hepatic cells is associated with gene expression changes suggesting disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
Specimen part, Cell line, TimeView Samples
Studies using yeast have advanced our understanding of both replicative and chronological aging, leading to the discovery of longevity genes that have homologues in higher eukaryotes. Chronological lifespan in yeast is conventionally defined as the lifespan of a non-dividing cell. To date, this parameter has only been estimated under calorically restricted (CR) conditions, mimicked by starvation. Since post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes are rarely calorically-restricted, we sought to develop an alternative experimental system where non-dividing yeast would age chronologically, in the presence of excess nutrients. We report here on a system wherein alginate-encapsulated yeast are packed in a pH- and temperature-controlled bioreactor, then continuously fed non-limiting substrate for extended periods of time. We present demographic, physiological and genomic evidence indicating that after ~120 hrs, immobilized cells cease dividing, remain metabolically very active and retain >95% viability for periods of 17 days. Over the same time interval, starved planktonic cells, cultured using the same media, and also controlled for temperature and pH, retained < 1 % viability in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures,. Unlike planktonic yeast, continuously-fed immobilized cells hyper-accumulate glycogen. FACS analysis of SYTOX green-stained yeast confirms that immobilized cells completely arrest within 5 days of culture, and unlike starving planktonic cells, remain free thereafter of replicative stress and are non-apoptotic. This unusual state is supported by a global gene expression profile that is stable over time, repeatable across replicate experiments, and altogether distinct from planktonic cells cultured in the presence and absence of limiting nutrients. DNA expression profiling, performed here for the very first time on immobilized cells, reveals that glycolytic genes and their trans-acting regulatory elements are upregulated, as are genes involved in remodeling the cell wall and resisting stress; by contrast, many genes that promote cell cycle progression and carry out oxidative metabolism are repressed. Stress resistance transcription factor MSN4 and its upstream effector RIM15 are conspicuously upregulated in the immobilized state, suggesting that nutrient-sensing pathways may play a role in cell viability and longevity when yeast are immobilized and placed in prolonged culture under calorically-unrestricted conditions. The cell cycle arrest in the immobilized state is mediated by RIM 15. Over the time-course of our experiments, well-fed, non-diving immobilized cells do not appear to age.
Uncoupling reproduction from metabolism extends chronological lifespan in yeast.
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After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these four cell types. Analysis of the RNA present in each bovine cell type using Affymetrix microarrays yielded new cell-specific genetic markers, functional insight into the behavior of each cell type via Gene Ontology Annotations and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and evidence of small and large luteal cell lineages using Principle Component Analysis. Enriched expression of select genes for each cell type was validated by qPCR. This expression analysis offers insight into the lineage and differentiation process that transforms somatic follicular cells into luteal cells.
Gene expression profiling of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions.
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