PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) provide defense against transposable element (TE) expansion in the germline of metazoans. piRNAs are processed from the transcripts encoded by specialized heterochromatic clusters enriched in damaged copies of transposons. How these regions are recognized as a source of piRNAs is still elusive. The aim of this study is to determine how transgenes that contain a fragment of the LINE-like I transposon lead to an acquired TE resistance in Drosophila. We show that such transgenes, being inserted in unique euchromatic regions which normally do not produce small RNAs, become de novo bidirectional piRNA clusters that silence I-element activity in the germline. Strikingly, small RNAs of both polarities are generated from the entire transgene and flanking genomic sequences â€” not only from the transposon fragment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that in ovaries the trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) mark associates with transgenes producing piRNAs. We show that transgene-derived hsp70 piRNAs stimulate in trans cleavage of cognate endogenous transcripts with subsequent processing of the non-homologous parts of these transcripts into piRNAs. Overall design: The fractions of small RNAs (19-29 nt) from ovaries of wild type and 11 transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
De novo piRNA cluster formation in the Drosophila germ line triggered by transgenes containing a transcribed transposon fragment.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
We showed different function of monocyte derived cells in the lamina propria of the colon under steady state and inflammatory conditions.
Ly6C hi monocytes in the inflamed colon give rise to proinflammatory effector cells and migratory antigen-presenting cells.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Here we demonstrate by the use of extensive controls and stringent statistical analysis that dendritic cells differentially regulate hundreds of different genes based upon sequence similarity of endogenously- and exogenously-loaded antigens and in a T-cell independent fashion. When endogenously and exogenously-derived antigens are identical, dendritic cells upregulate many different components of the Th-1 response, favoring the priming of CD8+ effectors and promulgating cellular immunity.
Th-1 polarization is regulated by dendritic-cell comparison of MHC class I and class II antigens.
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mRNA from bone marrow-derived MSCs stably expressing CTGF-specific shRNA (or empty vector control) was analyzed for differential gene expression. Significant differences were found in cell proliferation-related genes, especially genes related to the M phase of the cell cycle, which were down-regulated in CTGF-knockdown-MSCs compared to control MSCs.
Connective tissue growth factor regulates adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and facilitates leukemia bone marrow engraftment.
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In this study Panc-1 cells and BxPC-3 cells were cultured. The cells were harvested (untreated control 'cont') for RNA extraction, or treated for 3 hours with various exosomes preparations. The exosomes were collected from BJ human foreskin fibroblast culture supernatant without further processing (control exosomes or 'CE'), or engineered to contain scrambled siRNA ('scr') or KRASG12D siRNA ('iExo). Two or three distinct wells of cells were evaluated per treatment condition and assigned a well number (well -1, -2 or 3).
Generation and testing of clinical-grade exosomes for pancreatic cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
The cancer-risk associated rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the accompanying long non-coding RNA CCAT2 in the highly amplified 8q24.21 region has been implicated in cancer predisposition, though causality has not been established. Here, using allele-specific CCAT2 transgenic mice, we demonstrate that CCAT2 overexpression leads to spontaneous myeloid malignancies. CCAT2 is overexpressed in bone marrow and peripheral blood of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) patients. CCAT2 induces global deregulation of gene expression by downregulating EZH2 in vitro and in vivo in an allele-specific manner. We also identified a novel disease-specific RNA mutation (named DNA-to-RNA allelic imbalance, DRAI) at the SNP locus in MDS/MPN patients and CCAT2-transgenic mice. The RNA transcribed from the SNP locus in malignant hematopoietic cells have different allelic composition from the corresponding genomic DNA, a phenomenon rarely observed in normal cells. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the functional role of rs6983267 SNP and CCAT2 in myeloid malignancies.
Cancer-associated rs6983267 SNP and its accompanying long noncoding RNA <i>CCAT2</i> induce myeloid malignancies via unique SNP-specific RNA mutations.
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