We expressed a constitutively active mutant of MEK5 (MEK5D) in human primary endothelial cells (EC) to study the transcriptional and functional responses to Erk5 activation under static conditions.
Erk5 activation elicits a vasoprotective endothelial phenotype via induction of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4).
Cell lineView Samples
Inflammation has a causal role in many cancers. In prostate cancers, epidemiological data suggest a link between prostatitis and subsequent cancer development, but a proof for this concept in a tumor model has been lacking. A constitutively active version of the IkappaB kinase 2 (IKK2), the molecule activated by a plethora of inflammatory stimuli, was expressed specifically in the prostate epithelium. Signaling of the IKK2/NF-kappaB axis was insufficient for transformation of prostate tissue. However, while PTEN+/- epithelia exhibited intraepithelial neoplasias only recognizable by nuclear alterations, additional IKK2 activation led to an increase in tumor size and formation of cribriform structures and to a fiber increase in the fibroblastic stroma. This phenotype was coupled with inflammation in the prostate gland characterized by infiltration of granulocytes and macrophages. Molecular characterization of the tissues showed a specific loss of smooth muscle markers as well as expression of chemokines attracting immune cells. Isolation of epithelial and stromal cells showed differential chemokine expression by these cells. Correlation studies showed the inflammatory phenotype coupled to loss of smooth muscle in infiltrated glands, but maintenance of the phenotype in glands where inflammation had decreased. Despite the loss of the smooth muscle barrier, tumors were not invasive in a stable genetic background. Data mining revealed that smooth muscle markers are downregulated in human prostate cancers and literature data show that loss of these markers in primary tumors is associated with subsequent metastasis. Our data show that loss of smooth muscle and invasiveness of the tumor are not coupled. Thus, inflammation during early steps of tumorigenesis can lead to increased tumor size and a potential change in the subsequent metastatic potential, but the tumor requires an additional transformation to become a carcinoma.
Persistent inflammation leads to proliferative neoplasia and loss of smooth muscle cells in a prostate tumor model.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
Background: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. The vast majority of stage M patients present with disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Although these cells represent a major obstacle in the treatment of neuroblastoma patients, their transcriptomic profile was not intensively analyzed so far. Results: RNA-Seq of stage M primary tumors, enriched BM-derived DTCs and the corresponding non-tumor mononuclear cells (MNCs) revealed that DTCs largely retained the gene expression signature of tumors. However, we identified 322 genes that were differentially expressed (q < 0.001, |log2FC|>2). Particularly genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA were highly up-regulated in DTCs, whereas e.g. genes involved in angiogenesis were down-regulated. Furthermore, 224 genes were highly expressed in DTCs and only slightly, if at all, in MNCs (q < 8x10-75 log2FC > 6). Interestingly, we found that the gene expression profiles of diagnostic DTCs largely resembled those of relapse DTCs with only 113 differentially expressed genes under relaxed cut-offs (q < 0.01, |log2FC| > 0.5). Notably, relapse DTCs showed a positional enrichment of 31 down-regulated genes encoded by chromosome 19, including five tumor suppressor genes (SIRT6, PUMA, STK11, CADM4 and GLTSCR2). Conclusion: This first RNA-Seq analysis of DTCs from neuroblastoma patients revealed their unique expression profile in comparison to the corresponding MNCs and tumor samples, and, interestingly, also expression differences between diagnostic and relapse DTCs preferentially affecting chromosome 19. As these alterations might be associated with treatment failure and disease relapse, they should be considered for further functional studies. Overall design: Tumor (n=16), bone marrow-derived disseminated tumor cells (n=42) and corresponding bone marrow-derived non-tumor cells (n=28) of stage M neuroblastoma patients were used for RNA-Seq
Neuroblastoma cells undergo transcriptomic alterations upon dissemination into the bone marrow and subsequent tumor progression.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The objective of this study was to compare the transcriptional repertoire of mature human neutrophils before and after GM-CSF treatment by using oligonucleotide microarrays.
RhoH/TTF negatively regulates leukotriene production in neutrophils.
Specimen partView Samples
CsUBC13 was identified via proteomics from iron starvation treated Cucumber root. ubc13A is an ABRC seed stock (CS51269). CS851269 was purchased from ABRC and confirmed as homozygous Atubc13A knock-out T-DNA mutant. We generated transgenic arabidopsis with ectopic expression of CsUBC13 gene under control of the cauliflower 35S promotor. Both genotypes and Col-0 were used to investigate the transcriptional response to Iron (Fe) deficiency.
A lysine-63-linked ubiquitin chain-forming conjugase, UBC13, promotes the developmental responses to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis roots.
Specimen partView Samples
3 samples, 2 reps each. comparison of wildtype cotyledon to RNAioleosin transgenic
Suppression of soybean oleosin produces micro-oil bodies that aggregate into oil body/ER complexes.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Smac mimetics are considered as promising cancer therapeutics, but little is yet known about how they alter gene expression. In this study we used an unbiased genome-wide expression array to investigate Smac mimetic BV6-induced gene regulation in breast cancer cell lines. Kinetic analysis revealed that BV6 alters gene expression in two waves. The first wave primarily involves NF-B- and AP-1 families of transcription factors, while the second wave largely depends on tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling. Interestingly, disrupting auto-/paracrine tumor necrosis factor- (TNF)/ (TNFR1) signaling by knockdown of TNFR1 strongly attenuates the BV6-induced second wave of gene expression and upregulation of many pathways including NF-B signaling, apoptosis and immune signalling, but not MAPK signaling pathways. Consistently, BV6 stimulates phosphorylation of cJun, a marker of MAPK cascade activation, irrespective of the presence or absence of the TNF blocking antibody Enbrel. We show here in a comprehensive overview that BV6-induced gene expression in breast cancer cells takes place in a time- as well as TNFR1-dependent manner.
Smac mimetic induces an early wave of gene expression via NF-κB and AP-1 and a second wave via TNFR1 signaling.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Gene expression profiling of surgical biopsies from 74 breast cancer patients of different subtypes from Hamburg dataset.
Prognostic relevance of glycosylation-associated genes in breast cancer.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Macrophage activation is associated with profound transcriptional reprogramming. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of macrophage activation, polarization and function, the transcriptional programs regulating these processes remain poorly characterized. We stimulated human macrophages with diverse activation signals, acquiring a dataset of 299 macrophage transcriptomes. Analysis of this dataset revealed a spectrum of macrophage activation states extending the current M1 versus M2-polarization model. Network analyses identified central transcriptional regulators associated with all macrophage activation complemented by regulators related to stimulus-specific programs. Applying these transcriptional programs to human alveolar macrophages from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) revealed an unexpected loss of inflammatory signatures in COPD patients. Finally, by integrating murine data from the ImmGen project we propose a refined, activation-independent core signature for human and murine macrophages. This resource serves as a framework for future research into regulation of macrophage activation in health and disease.
Transcriptome-based network analysis reveals a spectrum model of human macrophage activation.
Subject, TimeView Samples