An immortalized multipotent otic progenitor (iMOP) cell was generated by transient expression of c-Myc in Sox2-expressing otic progenitor cells. The procedure activated endogenous c-Myc expression in the cells and amplified existing Sox2-dependent transcripts to promote self-renewal. Downregulation of c-Myc expression following growth factor withdrawal resulted in a molecular switch from self-renewal to otic differentiation. Overall design: Progenitor cells from embryonic inner ear that form otospheres were infected with a c-Myc retrovirus to promote self-renewal
SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research.
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Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS sorting. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 7, we performed a comprehensive cell-type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair-cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. Overall design: 3' tags of mRNA profiles of hair cells and surrounding cells from E16, P0, P4, and P7 cochlear and utricular sensory epithelia were generated by deep sequencing, using Illumina GAIIx
XIRP2, an actin-binding protein essential for inner ear hair-cell stereocilia.
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Expression profiles of anti-TNF responders were compared to profiles of anti-TNF non-responders in order to identify an expression signature for anti-TNF response
Validation study of existing gene expression signatures for anti-TNF treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stage, TreatmentView Samples
Purpose: This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes and transcripts in zebrafish embryos and larvae following benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure. Methods: Adult zebrafish (2 males × 4 females, N=6 replicate tanks for each treatment) were acclimated for 7 days in an 818 Low Temp Illuminated Incubator (Precision Scientific, Chennai, India) at 28.5°C. Next, adult fish were waterborne exposed to control or 50 µg/L (ppb) BaP for 7 days; ethanol was used as vehicle solvent, and final ethanol concentration was 0.1 mL/L (100 ppm) in all treatment groups. This dose of ethanol is not teratogenic to zebrafish. Water was changed and/or re-dosed daily. From day 7 to 11 of the parental exposure, eggs were collected, counted, and raised in normal conditions (control) or continuously exposed to 50 µg/L BaP until 3.3 and 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). At 3.3 or 96 hpf, embryos (200/pool) or larvae (10/pool) were collected and pooled. Total RNA was isolated for transcriptomic RNA sequencing with Illumina HiSeq2000 (2X100bp). RNA-seq reads were uploaded to the galaxy platform https://main.g2.bx.psu.edu/. RNA-seq reads were trimmed, filtered, and aligned to the zebrafish genome (Danio_rerio.Zv9.68) with the Tophat for Illumina tool. Counting and annotation of RNA-seq reads were performed with Partek Genomics Suite version 6.11. Refseq Transcripts (2013-04-10) and Ensembl Transcripts release 70 databases were used for gene and transcript annotation. Differential expression of gene and transcript reads between treatments was analyzed with R package EdgeR. Genes/transcripts with false discovery rate (FDR) less than 0.05 and absolute fold change greater than 1.5 were considered as significant. Differentially expressed genes were defined as genes with altered expression at either gene or transcript level. Results: Differential expression analysis with EdgeR revealed that gene expression was vastly different between 3.3 hpf zebrafish embryos and 96 hpf larvae. Using Refseq annotation, we found that 10644 out of 13950 transcribed zebrafish genes were differentially expressed between the two developmental time-points, with 5961 up-regulated genes and 4683 down-regulated genes in 96 hpf larvae compared with 3.3 hpf embryos. Similarly, using Ensembl annotation, 16529 out of 19886 transcribed zebrafish genes were differentially expressed, with 9318 up-regulated genes and 7211 down-regulated genes in 96 hpf larvae compared with 3.3 hpf embryos. In 3.3 hpf embryos, four genes and seven transcripts were differentially expressed after BaP exposure. In 96 hpf larvae, 447 and 484 zebrafish genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively, by BaP exposure. Conclusions: Parental and developmental BaP exposure caused gene expression changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Overall design: Illumina HiSeq2000 deep sequencing was used to generate transcriptomic profiles for BaP-exposed 3.3 hpf zebrafish embryos (n=3 for control, n=3 for BaP) and 96 hpf larvae (n=2 for control, n=2 for BaP).
Transcriptomic Changes in Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae Following Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure.
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Purpose: This study is designed to identify genes and processes that are differentially regulated in corn when it is grown with or without weeds through the entire critical weed free period (to V8) or when weeds were removed early in the critical weed free period (at V4) and the plants were allowed to recover until V8. Methods: Corn was grown as described above in field plots near Brookings SD in 2007 and 2008 and RNA was extracted from the top-most leaf tips from four plants per treatment plot. Unidirectional cDNA illumina sequencing libraries were constructed for each sample (pooled leaf tips from the given plot), and were sequenced (some samples were paired end sequenced and some were single end sequenced - all 100 bases for PE and SE reads), quality trimmed, and analyzed using the Tuxedo suite of programs for SE reads of the forward read libraries for each sample. Results: We identified a small number of genes that were differentially expressed in both years. More importantly, gene set enrichment analysis of the data determined that weeds, when present through the critical weed free period impacted phytochrome signaling, defense responses, photosynthetic processes, oxidative stress responses, and various hormone signaling processes. When weeds were removed at V4 and the plants allowed to recover until V8, the weeds still imprinted impacts on phytochrome signaling, oxidative stress, and defense responses. Thus, it appears that weeds presence through the early portion of the critical weed free period, even after removal, induced processes that reduce corn growth and yield that lasted at least through V8. Conclusions: This study represents the first investigation of the impact of the lasting effects of weeds during the early critical weed free period on the transcriptome of corn, and provides additional data on the impact of weeds through the critical weed free period that augments and confirms much of what was observed in similar microarray studies. Overall design: Experimental Design: Samples all collected at the same developmental stage (V8) from three treatments (control, weedy, and weeds removed followed by recovery), in each of two years (2007 and 2008), with two to three biological replicates of each treatment in each year.
Weed presence altered biotic stress and light signaling in maize even when weeds were removed early in the critical weed-free period.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
mRNA sequencing was used to identify genome wide transcriptional changes occuring in fly heads in response to spermidine feeding. This study shed light on the molecular mechanisms through wich spermidine can protect against age-dependent memory impairment. Overall design: mRNA profiles from 3 and 10 day old Drosophila melanogaster heads were generated in duplicate by deep sequencing using Illumina GAIIx. mRNA profiles from flies that were fed food with 5mM spermidine were compared to profiles from flies that had no spermidine in thier food.
Restoring polyamines protects from age-induced memory impairment in an autophagy-dependent manner.
Age, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Gene expression profiling on IL-10-secreting and non-secreting murine Th1 cells, stimulated in the presence or absence of the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), was performed to identify transcription factors co-expressed with IL-10.
Role of Blimp-1 in programing Th effector cells into IL-10 producers.
Specimen partView Samples
Oxidative DNA damage has been associated with cognitive decline. The Ogg1 and Mutyh DNA glycosylases cooperate to prevent mutations caused by 8-oxoG, a major premutagenic oxidative DNA base lesion. Here, we have examined behavior and cognitive function in mice deficient of these glycosylases. We found that Ogg1-/-Mutyh-/- mice were more active and less anxious and that their learning ability was impaired. In contrast, Mutyh-/- mice showed moderately improved memory compared to WT. There was no change in genomic 8-oxoG levels, suggesting that Ogg1 and Mutyh play minor roles in global repair in adult brain. Notably, transcriptome analysis of hippocampus revealed that differentially expressed genes in the mutant mice belong to pathways known to be involved in anxiety and cognitive function. Thus, beyond their involvement in DNA repair, Ogg1 and Mutyh modulate cognitive function and behavior, and related hippocampal gene expression, suggesting a novel role for 8-oxoG in regulating adaptive behavior. Overall design: The mRNA profiles from hippocampus of WT, Ogg1-/-, Mutyh-/- and Ogg1-/- Mutyh-/- C57BL/6 mice at 6month of age were generated by RNA sequencing using Illumina Hiseq 2000
Synergistic Actions of Ogg1 and Mutyh DNA Glycosylases Modulate Anxiety-like Behavior in Mice.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples