Although liganded nuclear receptors have been established to regulate RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription units, their role in regulating Pol III-transcribed DNA repeats remains largely unknown. Here we report that ~2-3% of the ~100,000-200,000 total human DR2 Alu repeats located in proximity to activated Pol II transcription units are activated by the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in human embryonic stem cells to generate Pol III-dependent RNAs. These transcripts are processed, initially in a DICER-dependent fashion, into small RNAs (~28-65 nt) referred to as repeat-induced RNAs that cause the degradation of a subset of crucial stem-cell mRNAs, including Nanog mRNA, which modulate exit from the proliferative stem-cell state. This regulation requires AGO3-dependent accumulation of processed DR2 Alu transcripts and the subsequent recruitment of AGO3-associated decapping complexes to the target mRNA. In this way, the RAR-dependent and Pol III-dependent DR2 Alu transcriptional events in stem cells functionally complement the Pol II-dependent neuronal transcriptional program. Overall design: RNA-sequencing of polyA selected RNA molecules in NTera2/D1 cells and Global Run On (GRO) assay followed by high throughput sequencing (GRO-seq).
DICER- and AGO3-dependent generation of retinoic acid-induced DR2 Alu RNAs regulates human stem cell proliferation.
Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
The experiment aims to identify transcriptional effects of Infliximab (an anti-TNF antibody) and CDP870 on human cell lines
mTNF reverse signalling induced by TNFα antagonists involves a GDF-1 dependent pathway: implications for Crohn's disease.
Cell line, Treatment, TimeView Samples
Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating cardiac tissue following ventricular resection within 30 days. We profiled both small RNA and mRNA expression in uninjured (0dpa), 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days post amputation to study biological processes orchestrate each stage of regeneration. Overall design: Small and mRNA gene expression profiling during 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days post ventricular resection.
RegenDbase: a comparative database of noncoding RNA regulation of tissue regeneration circuits across multiple taxa.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Adam17, a shedding protease, is strongly upregtulated during inflammation and cancer. Here we investigate the genome wide effects of Adam17 knock out on the transcriptome.
Critical role of the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM17 for intestinal inflammation and regeneration in mice.
Specimen partView Samples
To identify genes that are regulated from the lncRNA ANRIL (EXON 13), we designed inducible short hairpin RNA constructs and stable integrated them into HEK cells
The large non-coding RNA ANRIL, which is associated with atherosclerosis, periodontitis and several forms of cancer, regulates ADIPOR1, VAMP3 and C11ORF10.
To identify genes that are regulated from the lncRNA ANRIL (EXON19), we designed inducible short hairpin RNA constructs and stable integrated them into HEK cells
Linear isoforms of the long noncoding RNA CDKN2B-AS1 regulate the c-myc-enhancer binding factor RBMS1.
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are hormone-regulated transcription factors that regulate a diverse array of biological activities, including metabolism, homeostasis, and development. TRs also serve as tumor suppressors, and aberrant TR function (via mutation, deletion, or altered expression) is associated with a spectrum of both neoplastic and endocrine diseases. A particularly high frequency of TR mutations has been reported in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have shown that HCC-TR mutants regulate only a fraction of the genes targeted by wild-type TRs, but have gained the ability to regulate other, unique, targets. We have suggested that this altered gene recognition may contribute to the neoplastic phenotype. Here, to determine the generality of this phenomenon, we examined a distinct set of TR mutants associated with RCCCs. We report that two different TR mutants, isolated from independent RCCC tumors, possess greatly expanded target gene specificities that extensively overlap one another, but only minimally overlap that of the WT-TRs, or those of two HCC-TR mutants. Many of the genes targeted by either or both RCCC-TR mutants have been previously implicated in RCCC, and include a series of metallothioneins, solute carriers, and genes involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism. We propose that TR mutations from RCCC and HCC are likely to play tissue-specific roles in carcinogenesis, and that the divergent target gene recognition patterns of TR mutants isolated from the two different types of tumors arises from different selective pressures during development of RCCC versus HCC.
Mutant thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) isolated from distinct cancer types display distinct target gene specificities: a unique regulatory repertoire associated with two renal clear cell carcinomas.
Disease, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with metabolic dysregulation and systemic inflammation. This may be due to pathophysiologic effects of OSA on visceral adipose tissue. We sought to assess the transcriptional consequences of OSA on adipocytes by utilizing pathway-focused analyses.
A pathway-based analysis on the effects of obstructive sleep apnea in modulating visceral fat transcriptome.
The Gata4 transcription factor is essential for normal heart development, but the molecular basis for its function remain poorly understood. We profiled at the whole genome level transcript changes in cardiomyocytes when Gata4 is depleted from zebrafish embryos. Our objective was to elucidate the cardiomyocyte-specific molecular program functioning downstream of Gata4 in order to better understand the role of Gata4 in cardiac morphogenesis. Overall design: Six samples in total are deposited. Three replicate control samples and three replicate Gata4 morphant samples were analyzed.
Small heat shock proteins Hspb7 and Hspb12 regulate early steps of cardiac morphogenesis.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
So far, the majority of research on piRNAs was carried out in popular model organisms such as fruit fly and mouse, which however do not closely reflect human PIWI biology. Thus, we high-throughput sequenced and computationally analyzed piRNAs expressed in the adult testis of the pig owing to its full set of mammalian Piwi paralogs, availability for repeat experiments and the existence of elementary data from previous studies on the porcine PIWI/piRNA system. We provide an exhaustive characterization of porcine piRNAs and genomic piRNA clusters. In addition, we reveal that a considerable proportion of piRNAs matches protein coding genes, exhibiting characteristics that point to a biogenesis within the post-transcriptional silencing mechanism of the PIWI/piRNA pathway, commonly referred to as ping pong cycle. We further show that the majority of identified piRNA clusters spans exonic sequences of protein-coding genes or pseudogenes, which indicates the existence of different mechanisms for the generation of piRNAs directed against mRNA. Our data provides evidence that spliced mRNAs, derived from such loci, are not only targeted by piRNAs but are also subject to ping pong cycle processing. Finally, we demonstrate that homologous genes are targeted by piRNAs in pig, mouse and human. Altogether, this strongly suggests a role for mammalian piRNA clusters in gene regulation alongside of TE repression.
piRNAs from Pig Testis Provide Evidence for a Conserved Role of the Piwi Pathway in Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Mammals.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples