Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of human ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in tumour cell lines. The hypothesis tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two tumour cell lines (H460 and HCT116). All four lines had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 213% for the parental line to 6.40.8% (p=0.002) and 4.30.8% (p=0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under oxic or anoxic conditions, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis.
Expression and role in glycolysis of human ADP-dependent glucokinase.
Cell lineView Samples
miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit translation and promote mRNA decay. The levels of mature miRNAs are the result of different rates of transcription, processing, and turnover. The non-canonical polymerase Gld2 has been implicated in the stabilization of miR-122 possibly by catalyzing 3’ monoadenylation, however, there is little evidence that this relationship is one of cause and effect. Here, we biochemically characterize Gld2 involvement in miRNA monoadenylation and its effect on miRNA stability. We find that Gld2 directly monoadenylates and stabilizes specific miRNA populations in human fibroblasts and that sensitivity to monoadenylation-induced stability depends on nucleotides in the miRNA 3‘ end. These results establish a novel mechanism of miRNA stability and resulting post-transcriptional gene regulation. Overall design: Sequencing of miRNAs to assess amount and 3'' end monoadenylation state upon Gld2 knock-down.
Specific miRNA stabilization by Gld2-catalyzed monoadenylation.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
CD25 monoclonal antibody binding to the alpha-chain of the Interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, blocks high affinity IL-2 binding thereby preventing complete T cell activation and being of ample importance in transplantation medicine and potentially the treatment of autoimmune disease. However, CD25 antibodies do not only block T cell activation but also prevent activation induced cell death (AICD) attributing a dual function to IL-2. In this study, the modulation of the genomic expression profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with therapeutic concentrations of humanized anti-CD25 mAb was investigated. PBMC were stimulated with CD3 antibody OKT-3 together with recombinant IL-2 in the absence or presence of anti-CD25 mAb. RNA was extracted and subjected to microarray analysis on U133A microarrays (Affymetrix). The expression profile revealed the up-regulation of 62 genes and down-regulation of 38 genes by anti-CD25 mAb, respectively.
CD25 blockade protects T cells from activation-induced cell death (AICD) via maintenance of TOSO expression.
Specimen partView Samples
Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function. The work herein describes a new method to purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled cone photoreceptors from adult retina of Tg(3.2TCP:EGFP) zebrafish. Electropherograms confirmed downstream isolation of high-quality RNA with RNA integrity number (RIN) >7.6 and RNA concentration >5.7 ng/l obtained from both populations. Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that the EGFP-positive cell populations express known genetic markers of cone photoreceptors that were not expressed in the EGFP-negative cell population. This work is an important step towards the identification of cone photoreceptor-enriched genes, protein and signalling networks responsible for their development, survival and function. In addition, this advancement facilitates the identification of novel candidate genes for inherited human blindness.
HDAC6 inhibition by tubastatin A is protective against oxidative stress in a photoreceptor cell line and restores visual function in a zebrafish model of inherited blindness.
Specimen partView Samples
Primary pediatric Ewing sarcoma (ES), one uncharacterized sarcoma as well as primary and well established ES cell lines were compared to probes of different normal tissues
Distinct transcriptional signature and immunoprofile of CIC-DUX4 fusion-positive round cell tumors compared to EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcomas: further evidence toward distinct pathologic entities.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Nine cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) were produced under a standard ISO smoking machine regimen and one was produced by a more intense smoking machine regimen. These CSCs were used to treat primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells for 18 hours.
Effects of 10 cigarette smoke condensates on primary human airway epithelial cells by comparative gene and cytokine expression studies.
Specimen partView Samples
Inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) interaction with its ligand (ICOSL) is involved in several T cell effector functions. While blockade of ICOS:ICOSL interaction in chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) seems benefi cial, results for acute GVHD remain controversial. To further elucidate its role in acute GVHD, C57BL / 6 mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with allogeneic spleen cells in the absence or presence of ICOSL-blocking mAb. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic spleen cells experienced severe GVHD and died untreated within 6 9 days after transplantation. Mice treated with an anti-ICOSL mAb starting from day 3 after transplantation gained weight again and survived for at least additional 12 days, although the treatment was already stopped at day 11 after transplantation. In contrast, the anti-ICOSL treatment starting from day 0 did not prevent GVHD. The diff erence between therapeutic (day 3) and prophylactic (day 0) anti-ICOSL treatment was independent of CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T cells since their depletion did not abrogate the therapeutic eff ect of ICOSL blockade. Microarray analysis revealed IFN- and chemokine up-regulation in spleen cells of prophylactically treated mice, emphasizing kinetic dependence of acute GVHD modulation via blockade of ICOS:ICOSL interaction.
Only therapeutic ICOS:ICOSL blockade alleviates acute graft versus host disease.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Alpha synuclein (SNCA) has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies) that include Parkinsons disease (PD). Although the primary neurodegeneration in PD involves nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, more extensive yet regionally selective neurodegeneration is observed in other synucleinopathies. Furthermore, SNCA is ubiquitously expressed in neurons and numerous neuronal systems are dysfunctional in PD. Therefore it is of interest to understand how overexpression of SNCA affects neuronal function in regions not directly targeted for neurodegeneration in PD. To gain a better understanding of the consequences of excessive SNCA expression on basal ganglia function, we performed transcriptome analysis of striatal tissue from male Thy1-aSyn-mice and wt littermates. The present study investigated the consequences of SNCA overexpression on cellular processes and functions in the striatum of mice overexpressing wild-type, human SNCA under the Thy1 promoter (Thy1-aSyn mice) by transcriptome analysis. The analysis revealed alterations in multiple biological processes in the striatum of Thy1-aSyn mice, including synaptic plasticity, signaling, transcription, apoptosis, and neurogenesis.
Analysis of striatal transcriptome in mice overexpressing human wild-type alpha-synuclein supports synaptic dysfunction and suggests mechanisms of neuroprotection for striatal neurons.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
From a Caenorhabditis elegans - S. aureus anti-infective screen, we identified benzimidazole derivative C162 as one of the potential anti-infective candidate that rescued the infected-nematodes from infection. This compound was found to exhibit anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus. To investigate the transcriptome profile of S. aureus in response to benzimidazole derivative C162, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed on C162-treated S. aureus using the Affymetrix GeneChip S. aureus Genome Arrays. Our main interest is to look at the expression profiles of the biofilm-associated and virulence genes.
Suppression of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and virulence by a benzimidazole derivative, UM-C162.