Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems (T3SSs), encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 (SPI1) and 2 (SPI2), respectively. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with certain host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both T3SSs. Nothing is known about the function of this protein inside the host cells. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in epithelial cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also represses genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. Consisted with this analysis a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, reduction of cytotoxicity, cell-cell adhesion and migration capability, and increase in endocytosis.
Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells.
Cell lineView Samples
HSC (Sca+ SP) were isolated from 8-12 week C57B6 mice at various time points after treatment with 5-Fluorouracil. RNA was isolated from 50,000-100,000 FACS sorted cells and subjected to two rounds of T7 based linear amplification using Ambion's Message Amp kit. Two replicates from each time point were analyzed.
Molecular signatures of proliferation and quiescence in hematopoietic stem cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
In the present study, we have investigated the effect of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on the outcome of Plasmodium infection of the mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles gambiae and on the modulation of mosquito immunity to Plasmodium. Anopheles mosquitoes inoculated with CpG-ODN showed significant reduction of Plasmodium infection rate and intensity. Microarrays were used to profile transcription of fat-body from CpG-ODN-treated mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were dissected 18h after ODN inoculation (immediately before feeding). Batches of 20 to 30 fat bodies (abdomen without midgut, ovaries and malpighian tubule]) were dissected in cold DEPC-treated phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and processed for RNA preparation. Mosquitoes treated with CpG-ODNs are less susceptible to Plasmodium infection. Transcription profile of fat body indicates that protection was associated with coagulation/wound healing, while melanization appears to be depressed.
CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides increases resistance of Anopheles mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
A c-Src inhibitor blocks estrogen (E2)-induced stress and converts E2 responses from inducing apoptosis to growth stimulation in E2-deprived breast cancer cells. A reprogrammed cell line, MCF-7:PF, results with features of functional estrogen receptor (ER) and over-expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor beta (IGF-1RÃŸ). We addressed the question of whether the selective ER modulator 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) could target ER to prevent E2-stimulated growth in MCF-7:PF cells. Selected expression of mRNA was measured through real-time RT-PCR. Global gene expression was analyzed by microarray and RNA-seq analysis. Unexpectedly, both 4-OHT and E2 stimulated cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Global gene expression analysis showed a remarkable overlap in genes regulated in the same direction by E2 and 4-OHT. Pathway enrichment analysis of the 280 genes commonly deregulated by 4-OHT and E2 revealed functions mainly related to membrane, cytoplasm, and metabolic processes. Further analysis of 98 up-regulated genes by both 4-OHT and E2 uncovered a significant enrichment in genes associated with membrane remodeling, cytoskeleton reorganization, cytoplasmic adapter proteins, cytoplasm organelles proteins, and related processes. 4-OHT was more potent than E2 to up-regulate some membrane remodeling molecules, such as EHD2, FHL2, HOMER3 and RHOF. In contrast, 4-OHT acted as an antagonist to inhibit expression of the majority of enriched membrane-associated genes in wild-type MCF-7 cells. Long-term selection pressure has changed the cell population responses to 4-OHT. Membrane-associated signaling is critical for 4-OHT-stimulated cell growth in MCF-7:PF cells. This study provides a rationale for the further investigation of targeted therapy for tamoxifen resistant patients. Overall design: Wild-type MCF-7 cells were treated with vehicle control (0.1% ethanol), E2 (10-9 mol/L) and 4-OHT (10-6 mol/L) respectively for 24 hours.
Identification of gene regulation patterns underlying both oestrogen- and tamoxifen-stimulated cell growth through global gene expression profiling in breast cancer cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
GSM48315-GSM48332: Ten cells from C57Bl/6 male mouse bone marrow (SP or CD8 T cells) were sorted into individual wells of 96-well plates. The mRNA of these cells was amplified by the global single cell RT-PCR method and biotinylated targets were generated after optimal digestion with DNAse I.
Evidence for diversity in transcriptional profiles of single hematopoietic stem cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in diabetic patients. Emerging evidence suggests that retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, but the underlying causes of neuronal loss are unknown.
The db/db mouse: a useful model for the study of diabetic retinal neurodegeneration.
Specimen partView Samples
Human mesothelial cells (LP9/TERT-1) were exposed to low and high (15 and 75 m2/cm2 dish) equal surface area concentrations of crocidolite asbestos, nonfibrous talc, fine titanium dioxide (TiO2), or glass beads for 8 or 24 h. RNA was then isolated for Affymetrix microarrays, GeneSifter analysis and QRT-PCR. Gene changes by asbestos were concentration- and time-dependent. At low nontoxic concentrations, asbestos caused significant changes in mRNA expression of 29 genes at 8 h and 205 genes at 24 h, whereas changes in mRNA levels of 236 genes occurred in cells exposed to high concentrations of asbestos for 8 h. Human primary pleural mesothelial cells also showed the same patterns of increased gene expression by asbestos. Nonfibrous talc at low concentrations in LP9/TERT-1 mesothelial cells caused increased expression of 1 gene Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) at 8 h and no changes at 24 h, whereas expression levels of 30 genes were elevated at 8 h at high talc concentrations. Fine TiO2 or glass beads caused no changes in gene expression. In human ovarian epithelial (IOSE) cells, asbestos at high concentrations elevated expression of 2 genes (NR4A2, MIP2) at 8 h and 16 genes at 24 h that were distinct from those elevated in mesothelial cells. Since ATF3 was the most highly expressed gene by asbestos, its functional importance in cytokine production by LP9/TERT-1 cells was assessed using siRNA approaches. Results reveal that ATF3 modulates production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-13, G-CSF) and growth factors (VEGF and PDGF-BB) in human mesothelial cells.
Alterations in gene expression in human mesothelial cells correlate with mineral pathogenicity.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
BACKGROUND: Mixed lineage leukemia-1 (Mll1) epigenetically regulates gene expression patterns that specify cellular identity in both embryonic development and adult stem cell populations. In the adult mouse brain, multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) generate new neurons throughout life and Mll1 is required for this postnatal neurogenesis but not for glial cell differentiation. Analysis of Mll1-dependent transcription may identify neurogenic genes useful for the direct reprogramming of astrocytes into neurons.
Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Primary effusion lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma most commonly diagnosed in HIV-positive patients and universally associated with Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Chemotherapy treatment of PEL yields only short-term remissions in the vast majority of patients yet efforts to develop superior therapeutic approaches have been impeded by lack of animal models that more accurately mimic human disease. To address this issue we developed a direct xenograft model, UM-PEL-1, by transferring freshly-isolated human PEL cells into the peritoneal cavities of NOD/SCID mice without in vitro cell growth. We utilized this model to show that bortezomib induces PEL remission and extends overall survival of mice bearing lymphomatous effusions. Transcriptome analysis by genomic arrays revealed that bortezomib downregulated cell cycle progression, DNA replication, and Myc-target genes.
Efficacy of bortezomib in a direct xenograft model of primary effusion lymphoma.
Cell lineView Samples
we report single cell expression profiles of embryonic cells (from day 5 to 11) of pig embryo development. Overall design: single cell transcriptomes were generated from 220 cells obtained from 28 embryos (15 male and 13 female)
Pluripotency and X chromosome dynamics revealed in pig pre-gastrulating embryos by single cell analysis.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples