Pdgfra-expressing (Pdgfra+) cells have been implicated as progenitors in many mesenchymal tissues. To further characterize Pdgfra+ cells during alveologensis, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) sorted GFP+ cells from Pdgfra-GFP lungs at P7 and P15. Overall design: We perfomed 10X genomics single-cell RNA-seq of Pdgfra-GFP+ cells at P7 and P15
<i>Pdgfra</i> marks a cellular lineage with distinct contributions to myofibroblasts in lung maturation and injury response.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
DEAD-box RNA helicases eIF4A and Ded1 are believed to promote translation initiation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede ribosome attachment at the mRNA 5' end or subsequent scanning of the 5'UTR, but whether they perform distinct functions or act redundantly in vivo is poorly understood. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling. Despite similar reductions in bulk translation, inactivation of a cold-sensitive Ded1 mutant substantially reduced the TEs of >600 mRNAs, whereas inactivation of a temperature-sensitive eIF4A mutant yielded <40 similarly impaired mRNAs. The broader requirement for Ded1 did not reflect more pervasive secondary structures at low temperature, as inactivation of temperature-sensitive and cold-sensitive ded1 mutants gave highly correlated results. Interestingly, Ded1-dependent mRNAs exhibit greater than average 5'UTR length and propensity for secondary structure, implicating Ded1 in scanning though structured 5' UTRs. Reporter assays confirmed that cap- distal stem-loop insertions increase dependence on Ded1 but not eIF4A for efficient translation. While only a small fraction of mRNAs is strongly dependent on eIF4A, this dependence is significantly correlated with requirements for Ded1 and 5'UTR features characteristic of Ded1- dependent mRNAs. Our findings suggest that Ded1 is critically required to promote scanning through secondary structures within 5'UTRs; and while eIF4A cooperates with Ded1 in this function, it also promotes a step of initiation common to virtually all yeast mRNAs. Overall design: We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in yeast by ribosome footprint profiling.The study includes 32 samples, comprised of 16 mRNA-Seq samples and 16 ribosome footprint profiling samples, derived from biological replicates of 3 mutant strains, ded1-cs, ded1-ts and tif1-ts, and the corresponding wild-type strains. The tif1-ts mutant and its wild-type counterpart were analyzed at 30°C and 37°C.
Functional interplay between DEAD-box RNA helicases Ded1 and Dbp1 in preinitiation complex attachment and scanning on structured mRNAs in vivo.
To estimate mRNA steady-state levels we used RNA extracted from logarithmically growing fisson yeast cells on Affymetrix Yeast 2.0 Genechip arrays. The signal intensities from two independent biological repeats were averaged, resulting in measurements for 4818 out of 4962 nuclear protein-coding genes.
A network of multiple regulatory layers shapes gene expression in fission yeast.
Sex, SubjectView Samples
The aim of this study was to identify differential gene and protein expression associated with GBV-C that may be of importance in reduction of HCV-related liver disease. GB virus C (GBV-C) infection leads to improved outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Furthermore, GBV-C has been shown to reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease in HCV/HIV co-infection.
Down-regulation of intra-hepatic T-cell signaling associated with GB virus C in a HCV/HIV co-infected group with reduced liver disease.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
We compared expression of genes in brains of SIRT1 brain-specific knockouts (BSKO) to those of wild-type littermate controls (WT).
SIRT1 activates MAO-A in the brain to mediate anxiety and exploratory drive.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Glucose is the most important metabolic substrate of the retina and maintenance of nor-moglycemia is an essential challenge for diabetic patients. Glycemic excursions could lead to cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. We recently showed that hy-poglycemia induced retinal cell death in mouse via caspase 3 activation and glutathione (GSH) decrease. Ex vivo experiments in 661W photoreceptor cells confirmed the low-glucose induction of death via superoxide production and activation of caspase 3, which was concomitant with a decrease of GSH content. We evaluate herein retinal gene expression 4 h and 48 h after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Microarray analysis demonstrated clusters of genes whose expression is modified by hypoglycemia and we discuss the potential implication of those genes in retinal cell death. In addition, we highlight, by gene set enrichment analysis, three important pathways, including KEGG lysosomes, KEGG GSH metabolism and REACTOME apoptosis pathways. We tested the effect of recurrent hypoglycemia (three successive 5h periods of hypoglycemia separated by 48 h recovery) on retinal cell death. Interestingly, exposure to multiple hypoglycemic events prevents retinal cell death and GSH decrease, or adapts the retina to external stress by restoring GSH level comparable to control situation. We hypothesize that scavenger GSH is a key compound in this apoptotic process, and maintaining normal GSH level, as well as a strict glycemic control, may represent a therapeutic challenge in order to avoid side effects of diabetes, especially diabetic retinopathy.
Biological Characterization of Gene Response to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Mouse Retina.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, miRNAs affect numerous regulatory pathways including those crucial for maintaining metabolic balance. Here we demonstrate that a neuronal-specific inhibition of miRNA maturation in adult mice leads to a rapid development of severe obesity, which is equally rapidly reversed. Development of obesity was associated with increased food intake and efficiency, and decreased locomotor activity. The ensuing decrease in body weight resembled a catabolic state with lowered O2-consumption and respiratory-exchange ratio. Brain transcriptome analyses in obese mice identified several obesity-related pathways including leptin, somatostatin, and nemo-like kinase signaling, as well as genes involved in feeding and appetite (e.g. Pmch, Neurotensin). A cluster of genes involved in synaptic plasticity was specifically enriched in post-obese mice that did not appear in obese mice. While other studies have identified a role for miRNAs in obesity our model is unique in that it allows for the study of processes involved in reversing obesity.
A neuron-specific deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme DICER induces severe but transient obesity in mice.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Hearts of Myh6-MeCP2 transgenic mice and wildtype littermates were rapidly dissected and flash frozen.
Adrenergic Repression of the Epigenetic Reader MeCP2 Facilitates Cardiac Adaptation in Chronic Heart Failure.
Specimen partView Samples
Methods: RNA-seq libraries were prepared using the Illumina TruSeq technology. The libraries were quantified and samples were multiplexed in each lane of the flowcell. Cluster generation was performed and then sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2500 system. Reads were mapped on the Human Genome Reference (GRCh38) and normalized expression table was generated. Results: Among differentially expressed genes, compared with DMSO-treated hiPSC-CMs, 505 genes were upregulated in FM+WY+TID-treated hiPSC-CMs, with 72 genes commonly upregulated in both FM+WY+TID-treated hiPSC-CMs and LV groups and 949 genes were downregulated in FM+WY+TID-treated hiPSC-CMs and 2137 genes were downregulated in LV, with 437 genes downregulated in both FM+WY+TID-treated hiPSC-CMs and LV compared with DMSO-treated hiPSC-CMs . Conclusions: Data demonstrate increased expression of genes associated with many metabolic processes which are also highly enriched in human pediatric heart samples including many interconnected metabolic processes that are upstream of lipid metabolism and FAO, agreeing with the shift to FAO for energy utilization in more mature CMs, and decreased expression of genes involved in developmental processes, adhesion and signaling in both FM+WY+TID-treated hiPSC-CMs and LV. The overlap in both upregulated and downregulated genes in both groups confirmed an advanced degree of cardiomyocyte maturation in response to FM+WY+TID. Overall design: RNA-sequencing analysis was performed to compare global gene expression profiles of hiPSC-CMs at differentiation day 28 with maturation factors (FM+WY+TID) treatment (Treat) vs. DMSO treatment (DMSO) vs. left ventricle tissue sample (LV).
Targeting HIF-1α in combination with PPARα activation and postnatal factors promotes the metabolic maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples