In D. melanogaster males, X chromosome monosomy is compensated by chromosome-wide transcription activation. We found that complete dosage compensation during embryogenesis takes surprisingly long. Although the activating Dosage Compensation Complex (DCC) associates with the chromosome and acetylates histone H4 early, many genes are not compensated. Acetylation levels on gene bodies continue to increase for several hours after gastrulation in parallel with progressive compensation. Constitutive genes are compensated earlier than developmental genes. Remarkably, later compensation correlates with longer distances to DCC binding sites. This time-space relationship suggests that DCC action on target genes requires maturation of the active chromosome compartment. Overall design: RNA-seq in 8 embryonic stages in total 54 single embryos.
Progressive dosage compensation during Drosophila embryogenesis is reflected by gene arrangement.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Transcriptome analysis of control and MALAT1 lncRNA-depleted RNA samples from human diploid lung fibroblasts [WI38]
Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 controls cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenic transcription factor B-MYB.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Development is a complex and well-defined process characterized by rapid cell proliferation and apoptosis. At this stage in life, a developmentally young organism is more sensitive to toxicants and other stressors when compared to an adult. In response to pro-oxidant exposure, members of the Cap’n’Collar (CNC) basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) transcription factor family (including the Nfe2-related factors, Nrfs) activate the expression of genes that contribute to reduced toxicity. Here, we studied the role of the Nrf protein, Nfe2, in the developmental response to pro-oxidant exposure in the zebrafish. Following acute waterborne exposures to diquat or tert-buytlhydroperoxide (tBOOH) at three developmental stages, wildtype (WT) and nfe2 knockout (KO) embryos and larvae were morphologically scored and their transcriptomes sequenced. Overall design: Wildtype animals were on the AB background and an additional germline nfe2 knockout strain were created by disruption of the nfe2 reading frame. Waterborne exposures to either diquat or tBOOH were carried out at three different developmental stages: 2 hours post fertilization (hpf), 48hpf, and 96hpf in 3 pools of 30 embryos per condition. Animals were exposed to no treatment, 20µM diquat or 1mM tBOOH for a 4-hour dosing period. Total RNA was isolated from pooled animals and 50 bp, paired end, libraries were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with approximately 25 million reads per sample. Reads were then aligned to the Ensembl GRCz10 zebrafish reference genome using Tophat2 and raw counts data normalized using DESeq2. Gene annotation was from Ensemble for GRCz10.
The transcription factor, Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (Nfe2), is a regulator of the oxidative stress response during Danio rerio development.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
VAChT KDHOM mice have a 70% decrease in the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and this leads to a systemic decrease in ACh release and cardiac dysfunction.
An analysis of the myocardial transcriptome in a mouse model of cardiac dysfunction with decreased cholinergic neurotransmission.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate vital biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and development. A subclass of lncRNAs is synthesized from microRNA host genes (MIRHGs) due to pre-miRNA processing, and is categorized as miRNA-host gene lncRNAs (lnc-miRHGs). Presently, it is not clear whether lnc-miRHG perform additional functions. We demonstrate a miRNA-independent role for a nuclear-enriched lnc-miRHG in cell cycle progression. MIR100HG produces spliced and stable lncRNAs (lnc-MIR100HG) that display elevated levels during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Depletion of lnc-MIR100HG in human cells results in aberrant cell cycle progression with out altering the levels of miRNA encoded within MIR100HG. Notably, lnc-MIR100HG interacts with the HuR/Elav as well as with several of HuR-target mRNAs. Further, lnc-MIR100HG-depleted cells show reduced interaction between HuR and its target mRNAs, indicating that lnc-MIR100HG facilitates interaction between HuR and target mRNAs. Our studies have unearthed novel roles played by miRHG-encoded lncRNAs in regulating RNA binding protein activity, thereby underscoring the importance of determining the function of several hundreds of miRHG lncRNAs that are present in human genome.
MIR100 host gene-encoded lncRNAs regulate cell cycle by modulating the interaction between HuR and its target mRNAs.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
In order to study the transcriptional response of the fly brain to sugar and complete starvation, we first confirmed that 24 hours of sugar and complete starvation in flies is sufficient to elicit a homeostatic response. Subsequently, we used holidic medium to study effects of deficiency of a specfic macronutrient- cabohydrate in the food. To do so , we generated RNA- seq libraries from brains of 5 day old mated adult male flies maintained on different feeding regimes and used the sequencing data to identify diffrentially expressed genes in the brain under different feeding regimes. Overall design: For each condition, we used RNA prepared from 120-130 manually dissected adult fly brains maintained under complete starvation or sugar starvation regime for 24 hours.
Sugar Promotes Feeding in Flies via the Serine Protease Homolog scarface.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Most metabolic studies are conducted in male animals; thus, the molecular mechanism controlling gender-specific pathways has been neglected, including sex-dependent responses to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Here we show that PPARalpha has broad female-dependent repressive actions on hepatic genes involved in steroid metabolism and inflammation. In males, this effect is reproduced by the administration of synthetic PPARalpha ligand. Using the steroid hydroxylase gene Cyp7b1 as a model, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of this PPARalpha-dependent repression. Initial sumoylation of the ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha triggers the interaction of PPARalpha with the GA-binding protein alpha bound to the target promoter. Histone deacetylase is then recruited, and histones and adjacent Sp1-binding site are methylated. These events result in the loss of Sp1-stimulated expression, and thus the down-regulation of Cyp7b1. Physiologically, this repression confers protection against estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, paving the way for a novel therapy against the most common hepatic disease during pregnancy.
Sumoylated PPARalpha mediates sex-specific gene repression and protects the liver from estrogen-induced toxicity in mice.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
A mutant previously isolated from a screen of EMS-mutagenized Arabidopsis lines, per1, showed normal root hair development under control conditions but displayed an inhibited root hair elongation phenotype upon Pi deficiency. Additionally, the per1 mutant exhibited a pleiotropic phenotype under control conditions, resembling Pi-deficient plants in several aspects. Under Pi deficiency, the accumulation of Pi and iron was increased in the mutant when compared to the wild-type. Inhibition of root hair elongation upon growth on low Pi media was reverted by treatment with the Pi analog phosphite, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is not the result of a defect in Pi sensing. Reciprocal grafting experiments revealed that the mutant rootstock is sufficient to cause the phenotype. Transcriptional profiling of per1 and wild-type plants subjected to short-term Pi starvation revealed genes that may be important for the signaling of Pi deficiency. We conclude that UBP14 function is crucial for adapting root development to the prevailing local availability of phosphate.
Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (UBP14) is involved in root responses to phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis.
Specimen partView Samples
Aim: To examine transcriptional changes in DLD-1 cells exposed to softer matrices (2 kPa and 55 kPa) and identify the chromosomes that are enriched with maximmally deregulated genes Methods: DLD-1 cells (otherwise growing on stiff tissue culture plastic substrates) were exposed to softer matrices for 90 minutes and to collagen coated glass coverslips (served as control) served as control) Results: RNA sequencing revealed nearly equivalent transcriptional deregulation in cells on both the polyacrylamide matrices (783 genes up and 872 genes down on 2 kPa, 649 genes up and 783 genes down on 55 kPa) when compared to cells on glass. Additionally, GO classification revealed that unique sets of transcriptionally deregulated genes (log fold=2) belonged to pathways associated with transcription regulation, chromatin organization, cell cycle and DNA damage/repair Results: We identified chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17 and 19 to be maximally enriched with the deregulated genes on softer matrices (log fold=2), while chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 showed minimal enrichment of deregulated genes. We also examined the spatial organization of chromosome 1, 18 and 19 territories in cells on softer matrices (using 3D-FISH) and observed that these chromosomes were mislocalized away from their conserved nuclear locations Conclusions: Our study reports the transcriptomic changes in DLD-1 cells upon lowering of extracellular substrate stiffnes and its impact on the spatial positioning of chromosome territories Overall design: RNA Seq profiles for DLD-1 cells on soft polyacrylamide matrices of ~2 kPa and ~55 kPa (reference - glass) were generated across 2 independent biological replicates using Illumina HiSeq platform
Emerin modulates spatial organization of chromosome territories in cells on softer matrices.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Winter survival and maintenance strategy is crucial in temperate woody plants. Here, we demonstrate novel aspects of the transcriptional regulations adopted by perennial tree species in winter/dormancy, employing a biochemical and whole transcriptome analysis. As expected, genes related to cold hardiness and defense are over-represented. Interestingly, carbohydrate biosynthesis and transport-related genes were very actively expressed in winter/dormancy. Further biochemical analyses verified the dormancy/winter transcription phenotype. Furthermore, dormancy/winter preferential expression of genes involved in the cell wall biosynthesis/modification, circadian rhythm, the indirect transcriptional regulation (RNA metabolism), and chromatin modification/remodeling were identified. Taken together, regulation of gene expression in the winter survival and maintenance may include not only controlled by promoter binding transcription factors but may also be regulated at the post-transcriptional and chromatin levels.
Novel aspects of transcriptional regulation in the winter survival and maintenance mechanism of poplar.
Specimen partView Samples