Tienilic acid (TA) was withdrawn from the US market due to numerous cases of liver necrosis. Two major hypotheses currently used to understand the mechanisms of idiosyncratic reactions such as TA-induced hepatotoxicity are the hapten and danger hypotheses. Both human cytochrome (CYP) P450 2C9 and the rat ortholog CYP 2C11 metabolize TA, and it was reported that a reactive metabolite of TA binds almost exclusively to these enzymes, thus acting as a mechanism-based inhibitor. TA-induced liver toxicity is associated with antibodies against CYP 2C9, thus TA appears to act as a hapten. However, if the binding were limited to CYP 2C, it is unlikely that this would lead to significant cell stress. Thus, if TA does not cause cell stress it would suggest that a drug does not have to generate a danger signal in order to cause an idiosyncratic drug reaction and acting as a hapten is sufficient. In order to test whether TA can cause cell stress, male Sprague Dawley rats were orally dosed with TA, and hepatic gene expression was profiled at 6 and 24 h after drug administration.
Changes in gene expression induced by tienilic Acid and sulfamethoxazole: testing the danger hypothesis.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that threatens to reach epidemic proportions as our population ages. Although much research has examined molecular pathways associated with AD, relatively few studies have focused on critical early stages. Our prior microarray study correlated gene expression in human hippocampus with AD markers. Results suggested a new model of early-stage AD in which pathology spreads along myelinated axons, orchestrated by upregulated transcription and epigenetic factors related to growth and tumor suppression (Blalock et al., 2004). However, the microarray analyses were performed on RNA from fresh frozen hippocampal tissue blocks containing both gray and white matter, potentially obscuring region-specific changes. In the present study, we used laser capture microdissection to exclude major white matter tracts and selectively collect CA1 hippocampal gray matter from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) hippoc ampal sections of the same subjects assessed in our prior study. Microarray analyses of this gray matter-enriched tissue revealed many correlations similar to those seen in our prior study, particularly for neuron-related genes. Nonetheless, in the laser-captured tissue, we found a striking paucity of the AD-associated epigenetic and transcription factor genes that had been strongly overrepresented in the prior tissue block study. In addition, we identified novel pathway alterations that may have considerable mechanistic implications, including downregulation of genes stabilizing ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release and upregulation of vascular development genes. We conclude that FFPE tissue can be a reliable resource for microarray studies, that upregulation of growth-related epigenetic/ transcription factors with incipient AD is predominantly localized to white matter, further supporting our prior findings and model, and that alterations in vascular and ryanodine receptor-relat ed pathways in gray matter are closely associated with incipient AD.
Microarray analyses of laser-captured hippocampus reveal distinct gray and white matter signatures associated with incipient Alzheimer's disease.
Sex, Age, DiseaseView Samples
Classically activated (M1) macrophages protect from infection but can cause inflammatory disease and tissue damage while alternatively activated (M2) macrophages reduce inflammation and promote tissue repair. Modulation of macrophage phenotype may be therapeutically beneficial and requires further understanding of the molecular programs that control macrophage differentiation. A potential mechanism by which macrophages differentiate may be through microRNA (miRNA), which bind to messenger RNA and post-transcriptionally modify gene expression, cell phenotype and function. The inflammation-associated miRNA, miR-155, was rapidly up-regulated over 100-fold in M1, but not M2, macrophages. Inflammatory M1 genes and proteins iNOS, IL-1b and TNF-a were reduced up to 72% in miR-155 knockout mouse macrophages, but miR-155 deficiency did not affect expression of genes associated with M2 macrophages (e.g., Arginase-1). Additionally, a miR-155 oligonucleotide inhibitor efficiently suppressed iNOS and TNF-a gene expression in wild-type M1 macrophages. Comparative transcriptional profiling of unactivated (M0) and M1 macrophages derived from wild-type and miR-155 knockout (KO) mice revealed an M1 signature of approximately 1300 genes, half of which were dependent on miR-155. Real-Time PCR of independent datasets validated miR-155's contribution to induction of iNOS, IL-1b, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-12, as well as suppression of miR-155 targets Inpp5d, Tspan14, Ptprj and Mafb. Overall, these data indicate that miR-155 plays an essential role in driving the differentiation and effector potential of inflammatory M1 macrophages.
Control of the Inflammatory Macrophage Transcriptional Signature by miR-155.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Background: Age-related cognitive deficits negatively affect quality of life and can presage serious neurodegenerative disorders. Despite sleep disruptions well-recognized negative influence on cognition, and its prevalence with age, surprisingly few studies have tested sleeps relationship to cognitive aging.
Deep sleep and parietal cortex gene expression changes are related to cognitive deficits with age.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages play distinct roles in various physiological and disease processes. Understanding the gene transcription programs that contribute to macrophage polarization along the M1/M2 spectrum may lead to new tools to detect and therapeutically manipulate macrophage phenotype. Here, we define the M1 and M2 macrophage signature through mRNA microarray. The M1 macrophage signature was defined by 629 up-regulated and 732 down-regulated genes while the M2 macrophage signature was formed by 388 up-regulated and 425 down-regulated genes. While a subset of probes was common to both M1 and M2 cells, others were exclusive to each macrophage subset. The common M1/M2 pathways were characterized by changes in various transcriptional regulators and signaling partners, including increases in Kruppel-like Factor (Klf) 4, but decreases in Klf2. To identify M1 and M2 biomarkers that help discriminate these populations, we selected genes that were increased during M1 or M2 differentiation but decreased in the opposite population. Among top novel M1-distinct genes, we identified CD38, G-protein coupled receptor 18 (Gpr18) and Formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2). Among top M2 genes, we found early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and Myc. We validated these genes by Real-Time PCR and developed a CD38/Egr2-based flow cytometry assay that discriminates between M1 and M2 macrophages. Overall, this work defines the M1 and M2 signature and identifies several novel M1 and M2 genes that may be used to distinguish and manipulate M1 and M2 macrophages.
Novel Markers to Delineate Murine M1 and M2 Macrophages.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
The functionality of dendritic cells might be influenced by alterations of their biophysic microenvironment, e.g. changes in salt concentration. Microarray analysis aims to evaluate whether dendritic cells cultured in medium containing different salt concentrations modulate their gene expression profile.
The renal microenvironment modifies dendritic cell phenotype.
Specimen partView Samples
Sleep deprivation (SD) in young adults is associated with metabolic, stress and cognitive responses that are also characteristic of brain aging. Given that sleep architecture changes with age, including increased fragmentation and decreased slow wave activity, it seems reasonable to investigate potential molecular relationships between SD and aging in brain tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that young rats exposed to 24 or 72 hour SD would respond with stress and aging-like shifts in brain hippocampal CA1 gene expression. SD animals showed blood corticosterone and weight changes consistent with a stress response. Microarray results, validated by Western blot and comparison to prior SD studies, pointed to disruptions in neurotransmission, sleep pressure signaling, and macromolecular synthesis. In a separate experiment, animals exposed to 24 or 72 hour novel environment stress recapitulated nearly one third of the SD transcriptional profile, particularly upregulated apoptotic and immune signaling pathways. Compared to aging (based on three previously published independent hippocampal aging studies), SD transcriptional profiles agreed for neurogenesis and energy pathways. However, immune signaling, glial activity, macromolecular synthesis and neuronal function all showed an SD profile that was, at least in part, opposed by aging. We conclude that while stress and SD have discrete molecular signatures, they do show a subset of highly similar changes. However, the same could not be said of aging and SD, where a similar subset of genes is changed, but in partially divergent directions. Finally, this work identifies presynaptic vesicular release and intercellular adhesion molecular signatures as novel targets for future SD-countering therapeutics.
Hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profile of sleep deprivation: relation to aging and stress.
Sex, TreatmentView Samples
Unrestrained receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling and epigenetic deregulation are root causes of tumorigenesis. We establish linkage between these processes by demonstrating that aberrant RTK signaling unleashed by oncogenic HRasG12V or loss of negative feedback through Sprouty gene deletion remodels histone modifications associated with active typical and super-enhancers. However, while both lesions disrupt the Ras-Erk axis, the expression programs, enhancer signatures, and transcription factor networks modulated upon HRasG12V-transformation or Sprouty deletion are largely distinct. Oncogenic HRasG12V elevates histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) levels at enhancers near the transcription factor Gata4 and the kinase Prkcb, as well as their expression levels. We show that Gata4 is necessary for the aberrant gene expression and H3K27ac marking at enhancers, and Prkcb is required for the oncogenic effects of HRasG12V-driven cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that dynamic reprogramming of the cellular enhancer landscape is a major effect of oncogenic RTK signaling. Overall design: We assessed gene expression changes upon loss of feedback regulation through Sprouty (Spry) deletion, and upon unrestrained signaling driven by mutant oncogenes. RNA-seq was performed in biological triplicate; replicate number is included in the sample name. Spry124fl/fl (VEC) and Spry124-/- (CRE) MEFs were profiled in three conditions: unsynchronized (U), serum starved (S), and serum starved and FGF treated (F). Spry124fl/fl (VEC) MEFs transduced with empty vector (EV) control or the indicated oncogenes (KRasG12V, HRasG12V, and BRafV600E) as well as Spry124-/- (CRE) MEFs transduced with EV control were profiled in the unsynchronized state.
Deregulation of the Ras-Erk Signaling Axis Modulates the Enhancer Landscape.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Background: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and are used clinically to help restore peripheral insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interestingly, long-term treatment of mouse models of Alzheimers disease (AD) with TZDs also has been shown to reduce several well-established brain biomarkers of AD including inflammation, oxidative stress and Abeta accumulation. While some of the TZD actions are becoming clear in AD models and may mediate their reported beneficial impact in AD patients, little is known about the functional consequences of TZDs in animal models of normal aging. Because aging is a common risk factor for both AD and T2DM, we investigated whether the TZD, pioglitazone could alter brain aging under non-pathological conditions. Findings: The TZD pioglitazone (PIO) was incorporated into the diet to yield a final dose of approximately 2.3 mg/kg body weight/day. PIO reduced insulin levels irrespective of age. Interestingly, a significant reduction in the Ca2+-dependent afterhyperpolarization was seen in the aged animals with no significant change in LTP maintenance or learning and memory performance. Finally, a combination of microarray analyses on hippocampal tissue and serum-based multiplex cytokine assays revealed that age-dependent inflammatory changes in brain and periphery were not reversed by PIO.
Effects of long-term pioglitazone treatment on peripheral and central markers of aging.
Sex, AgeView Samples
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that dissipates stored energy as heat to maintain body temperature in infants and small mammals. This process may also provide protection from development of diet-induced obesity. We found that the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) markedly decreases differentiation of cultured primary brown adipocyte precursors, while potent selective inhibitors of the LPA-generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) promote differentiation. Transgenic mice overexpressing ATX exhibited reduced expression of BAT-related genes in peripheral white adipose tissue and accumulated significantly more fat than wild-type controls when fed a high fat diet. Our results indicate that ATX and its product LPA are physiologically relevant negative regulators of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that a decrease in peripheral brown adipose tissue results in increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in mice.
Autotaxin and its product lysophosphatidic acid suppress brown adipose differentiation and promote diet-induced obesity in mice.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples