We sought to test whether vaccine-induced immune responses could protect rhesus macaques (RMs) against upfront heterologous challenges with an R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-2873Nip. We immunized the RMs with recombinant Env proteins heterologous to the challenge virus. For induction of immune responses against Gag, Tat, and Nef, we explored a strategy of immunization with overlapping synthetic peptides (OSP). The immune responses against Gag and Tat were finally boosted with recombinant proteins. The vaccinees and a group of ten control animals were given five low-dose intrarectal (i.r.) challenges with SHIV-2873Nip. All controls and seven out of eight vaccinees became systemically infected; there was no significant difference in viremia levels of vaccinees vs. controls. Prevention of viremia was observed in one vaccinee which showed strong boosting of virus-specific cellular immunity during virus exposures. The protected animal showed no challenge virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in the TZM-bl or A3R5 cell-based assays and had low level ADCC activity after the virus exposures. Microarray data strongly supported a role for cellular immunity in the protected animal. Our study represents a case of protection against heterologous tier 2 SHIV-C by vaccine-induced, virus-specific cellular immune responses.
Multimodality vaccination against clade C SHIV: partial protection against mucosal challenges with a heterologous tier 2 virus.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are characterized by mutations in epigenetic modifiers and aberrant DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DMTis) are used to treat these disorders, but response is highly variable with few means to predict which patients will benefit. To develop a molecular means of predicting response at diagnosis, we examined baseline differences in mutations, DNA methylation, and gene expression in 40 CMML patients responsive and resistant to decitabine (DAC). While somatic mutations did not differentiate responders and non-responders, we were able to identify for the first time 158 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) at baseline between responders and non-responders using next-generation sequencing. These DMRs were primarily localized to non-promoter regions and overlapped with distal regulatory enhancers. Using the methylation profiles, we developed an epigenetic classifier that accurately predicted DAC response at the time of diagnosis. We also found 53 differentially expressed genes between responders and non-responders. Genes up-regulated in responders were enriched in the cell cycle, potentially contributing to effective DAC incorporation. Two chemokines overexpressed in non-responders -- CXCL4 and CXCL7 -- were able to block the effect of DAC on normal CD34+ and primary CMML cells in vitro, suggesting their up-regulation contributes to primary DAC resistance. Overall design: mRNA profiling in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNC) from 14 CMML patients (8 decitabine responders vs. 6 non-responders).
Specific molecular signatures predict decitabine response in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Several aspects common to a Western lifestyle, including obesity and decreased physical activity, are known risks for gastrointestinal cancers. There is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that diet profoundly affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Moreover, there is now unequivocal evidence linking a dysbiotic gut to cancer development. Yet, the mechanisms through which high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated changes in the microbial community impact the severity of tumorigenesis in the gut, remain to be determined.
High-fat-diet-mediated dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis independently of obesity.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
These experiments are designed to discover genes that are expressed selectively by synaptic nuclei in skeletal muscle with the particular goal of identifying genes that regulate motor axon growth and differentiation.
CD24 is expressed by myofiber synaptic nuclei and regulates synaptic transmission.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The two most common melanoma histopathologic subtypes, superficial spreading (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM), are believed to represent sequential phases of linear progression from radial to vertical growth. Studies suggest, however, that SSM and NM are biologically distinct. We utilized an integrative genomic approach to examine the possibility that SSM and NM are the result of independent pathways characterized by unique molecular alterations. Cell lines including SSM, NM, metastatic melanoma, and melanocyte controls were evaluated for copy number changes and differential mRNA expression using single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP 6.0, Affymetrix) and gene array (U133A 2.0, Affymetrix). Data sets were integrated to identify copy number alterations that correlated with gene expression, and array results were validated using immunohistochemistry on human tissue microarrays (TMAs) and an external data set. The functional effect of genomic deletion was assessed by lentiviral overexpression. Integrative genomics revealed 8 genes in which NM/SSM-specific copy number alterations were correlated with NM/SSM differential gene expression (P<0.05, Spearmans rank). Pathways analysis of differentially expressed genes (N=114) showed enrichment for metabolic-related processes. SSM-specific genomic deletions (DIS3, MTAP, G3BP2, SEC23IP, USO1) were verified in an expanded panel of cell lines, and forced overexpression of MTAP in SSM resulted in reduced cell growth. Metabolism-related gene ALDH7A1 was verified as overexpressed in NM using human TMAs.The identification of recurrent genomic deletions in SSM not present in NM challenges the linear model of melanoma progression and supports the unique molecular classification of SSM and NM.
Integrative genomics identifies molecular alterations that challenge the linear model of melanoma progression.
Cell lineView Samples
Alternative mRNA splicing is an important mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Changes in gene expression contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. However, changes in mRNA splicing have not been systematically examined in heart disease. We hypothesized that mRNA splicing is changed in diseased hearts.
Heart failure-associated changes in RNA splicing of sarcomere genes.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The scaffold attachment factors SAFB1 and SAFB2 are paralogs, which are involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, differentiation, and stress response. They have been shown to function as estrogen receptor co-repressors, and there is evidence for a role in breast tumorigenesis. To identify their endogenous target genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we utilized gene expression array analysis, which was set up in a two-by-four design, with vehicle and estrogen treatment, and control, SAFB1, SAFB2, and SAFB1/SAFB2 siRNA as variables. Using custom chips containing 1.5 kb upstream regulatory region, we identified 541 SAFB1/SAFB2 binding sites in promoters of known genes, with significant enrichment on chromosome 1 and 6. Gene expression analysis revealed that the majority of target genes were induced in the absence of SAFB1 or SAFB2, and less were repressed. In contrast to SAFB2, which shared most of its target genes with SAFB1, SAFB1 had many unique target genes, most of them involved in regulation of the immune system. A subsequent analysis of the estrogen treatment group revealed that twelve percent of estrogen-regulated genes were dependent on SAFB1, with the majority being estrogen-repressed genes. These were primarily genes involved in apoptosis, such as BBC3, NEDD9, and OPG. Thus, this study confirms SAFB1/SAFB2s primary role as co-repressors, and also uncovers a previously unknown role for SAFB1 in regulation of immune genes, and in estrogen-mediated repression of genes.
SAFB1 mediates repression of immune regulators and apoptotic genes in breast cancer cells.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which have been attributed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). The effects of IH on lung structure and function are unknown. We used a mouse model of chronic IH, which mimics the O2 profile in patients with OSA. We exposed adult C57BL/6J mice to 3 months of IH with an FIO2 nadir of 5%, 60 times/hr during the 12hr light phase. Control mice were exposed to room air.
Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces lung growth in adult mice.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
The undifferentiated spermatogonial population of mouse testis is known to be functionally heterogeneous and contain both stem cells and committed progenitor cells. However, gene expression patterns marking these distinct cell fractions are poorly defined. We found that a subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia were marked by expression of a PDX1-GFP transgene but properties of these cells were unclear. Undifferentiated cells were therefore isolated from adult testes and separated according to expression of PDX1-GFP+ for gene expression analysis by RNA-seq. Our goal was to identify differentially expressed genes from PDX1-GFP+ vs PDX1-GFP- with that of known markers of stem and committed progenitor cells. Overall design: 4 independent sets of PDX1-GFP-positive and PDX1-GFP-negative undifferentiated spermatogonia were isolated by flow sorting from adult mouse testes.
Identification of dynamic undifferentiated cell states within the male germline.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples