Heterosis which is the improved vigor of F1-hybrids compared to their parents is widely exploited in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding to produce elite hybrids of superior yield. The transcriptomes of the maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their reciprocal hybrid offspring were surveyed in the meristematic zone, the elongation zone, cortex and stele tissues of primary roots, prior to the developmental manifestation of heterosis. Single parent expression (SPE) is consistent with the dominance model for heterosis in that it denotes genes that are expressed in only one parent but in both reciprocal hybrids. In primary root tissues, between 1,027 (elongation zone) and 1,206 (stele) SPE patterns were observed. As a consequence, hybrids displayed in each tissue >400 active genes more than either parent. Analysis of tissue-specific SPE dynamics revealed that 1,233 of 2,233 SPE genes displayed SPE in all tissues in which they were expressed while 1,000 SPE genes displayed in at least one tissue a non-SPE pattern. In addition, 64% (17,351/ 27,164) of all expressed genes were assigned to the two subgenomes which are the result of an ancient genome duplication. By contrast, only between 18 and 25% of the SPE genes were assigned to a subgenome suggesting that a disproportionate number of SPE genes are evolutionary young and emerged after genome duplication. We hypothesize that this phenomenon is associated with human selection of favorable maize genotypes which might primarily affect younger genes rather than genes whose functions have been conserved for millions of years.
Nonsyntenic genes drive highly dynamic complementation of gene expression in maize hybrids.
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are usually clonally derived. The selection of fully reprogrammed cells generally involves picking of individual colonies with morphology similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, successfully reprogrammed cells are highly proliferative and escape from cellular senescence - it is therefore conceivable that they outgrow non-pluripotent and partially reprogrammed cells during culture expansion without the need of clonal selection. In this study, we have reprogrammed human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) with episomal plasmid vectors. Colony frequency and size was higher when using murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as stromal support instead of HDFs or human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We have then compared iPSCs which were either clonally derived by manual selection of a single colony, or derived from bulk-cultures of all initial colonies. After few passages their morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, and gene expression profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Furthermore, clonally-derived and bulk-cultured iPSCs had indistinguishable in vitro differentiation potential towards the three germ layers. Therefore, manual selection of individual colonies does not appear to be necessary for the generation of iPSCs this is of relevance for standardization and automation of cell culture procedures
To clone or not to clone? Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated in bulk culture.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Znf536 mutant and wild types were profiled to discover cell type landscape modulated by the transcription factor. Overall design: 10x libraries of single cell transcriptomes
Phenotypic Landscape of Schizophrenia-Associated Genes Defines Candidates and Their Shared Functions.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
A neuronal PI(3,4,5)P3-dependent program of oligodendrocyte precursor recruitment and myelination was identified in mice that conditionally lack PTEN in cerebellar granular cells (PTEN cKO)
A neuronal PI(3,4,5)P<sub>3</sub>-dependent program of oligodendrocyte precursor recruitment and myelination.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Accumulating evidences suggest that sex affects lung development. During the fetal period, male lung maturation is delayed compared with female and surfactant production appears earlier in female than in male fetal lungs.
Gene expression profile of androgen modulated genes in the murine fetal developing lung.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma -hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver.
High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Alternative mRNA splicing is an important mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Changes in gene expression contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. However, changes in mRNA splicing have not been systematically examined in heart disease. We hypothesized that mRNA splicing is changed in diseased hearts.
Heart failure-associated changes in RNA splicing of sarcomere genes.
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Low reduced red:far-red ratio [R:FR] signaling through phytochromes induces shade avoidance responses, including petiole elongation. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense against herbivores and pathogens is inhibited under these conditions.
Low red/far-red ratios reduce Arabidopsis resistance to Botrytis cinerea and jasmonate responses via a COI1-JAZ10-dependent, salicylic acid-independent mechanism.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Low R:FR signaling through phytochromes induces shade avoidance responses, including petiole elongation. Salicylic acid-mediated defense against pathogens is inhibited under these conditions.
Perception of low red:far-red ratio compromises both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent pathogen defences in Arabidopsis.
Age, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples