Activation of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF-alpha and the NF-kappaB pathway promotes inflammation mediated tumor progression.
The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ZNF395 is controlled by IĸB kinase-signaling and activates genes involved in the innate immune response and cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
We have performed whole genome expression arrays covering over 47000 transcripts comparing the transcriptional profile of NKp80+ to NKp80- CD8+ CCR7- alpha beta T cells. A highly similar global gene expression profile was observed between both memory phenotype T cell subsets. Interestingly, the majority of differentially expressed genes are immune-associated. NKp80+ cells contained markedly increased levels of transcripts encoding for MHC class I and II molecules and for numerous members of the KIR family. Also other NK-related transcripts were more abundantly expressed in the NKp80+ subset. With regards to cytokines, chemokines and their receptors, transcripts important for homeostasis and proliferation are expressed differently. Also transcripts encoding for adhesion molecules are present at different levels in both T cell subsets. Further cytotoxic effector molecules are expressed differently.
NKp80 defines and stimulates a reactive subset of CD8 T cells.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
The aim of our study was to investigate the functions of Grhl transcription factor in the kidney.
Consequences of the loss of the Grainyhead-like 1 gene for renal gene expression, regulation of blood pressure and heart rate in a mouse model.
Specimen partView Samples
Melanocytes within benign human nevi are the paradigm for tumor suppressive senescent cells in a pre-malignant neoplasm. These cells typically contain mutations in either the BRAF or N-RAS oncogene and express markers of senescence, including p16. However, a nevus can contain 10s to 100s of thousands of clonal melanocytes and approximately 20-30% of melanoma are thought to arise in association with a pre-existing nevus. Neither observation is indicative of fail-safe senescence-associated proliferation arrest and tumor suppression. We set out to better understand the status of nevus melanocytes. Proliferation-promoting Wnt target genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, were repressed in oncogene-induced senescent melanocytes in vitro, and repression of Wnt signaling in these cells induced a senescent-like state. In contrast, cyclin D1 and c-myc were expressed in many melanocytes of human benign nevi. Specifically, activated Wnt signalling in nevi correlated inversely with nevus maturation, an established dermatopathological correlate of clinical benignancy. Single cell analyses of lone epidermal melanocytes and nevus melanocytes showed that expression of proliferation-promoting Wnt targets correlates with prior proliferative expansion of p16-expressing nevus melanocytes. In a mouse model, activation of Wnt signaling delayed, but did not bypass, senescence of oncogene-expressing melanocytes, leading to massive accumulation of proliferation-arrested, p16-positive non-malignant melanocytes. We conclude that clonal hyperproliferation of oncogene-expressing melanocytes to form a nevus is facilitated by transient delay of senescence due to activated Wnt signaling. The observation that activation of Wnt signaling correlates inversely with nevus maturation, an indicator of clinical benignancy, supports the notion that persistent destabilization of senescence by Wnt signaling contributes to the malignant potential of nevi.
Wnt signaling potentiates nevogenesis.
Specimen partView Samples
To more concretely elucidate the long-term effects of chronic SSRI exposure during adulthood, the long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) versus vehicle treatment during adulthood (postnatal day (PND) 67-88) on gene expression in the hippocampus were investigated. The study showed that adult chronic fluoxetine exposure causes on the long-term changes in the expression of genes related to, amongst others, myelination Overall design: Comparison of gene expression in hippocampus tissue of fluoxetine and methylcellulose-exposed rats (postnatal day 128). 2 rats pooled per sample, 2 samples per treatment group
Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
An improved understanding of the anti-tumor CD8+ T cell response after checkpoint blockade would enable more informed and effective therapeutic strategies. Here we examined the dynamics of the effector response of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) after checkpoint blockade therapy. Bulk and single-cell RNA profiles of CD8+ TILs after combined Tim-3+PD-1 blockade in preclinical models revealed significant changes in the transcriptional profile of PD-1? TILs. These cells could be divided into subsets bearing characterstics of naive-, effector-, and memory-precursor-like cells. Effector- and memory-precursor-like TILs contained tumor-antigen-specific cells, exhibited proliferative and effector capacity, and expanded in response to different checkpoint blockade therapies across different tumor models. The memory-precursor-like subset shared features with CD8+ T cells associated with response to checkpoint blockade in patients and was compromised in the absence of Tcf7. Expression of Tcf7 was requisite for the efficacy of diverse immunotherapies, highlighting the importance of this transcriptional regulator in the development of effective CD8+ T cell responses upon immunotherapy. Overall design: (i) RNAseq of Wild Type NaÃ¯ve-like, Memory-like and Effector-like subpopulations of PD1-CD8+ Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes isolated from MC38-OVA. CD62LhiSlamf7-CX3CR1-, CD62L-Slamf7hiCX3CR1- and CD62L-Slamf7hiCX3CR1+ subsets within PD-1-CD8+ TILs (ii) RNAseq from WT mice, Tim-3+PD-1+ and Tim-3-PD-1- CD8+ TILs were isolated by cell sorting from MC38-OVA tumor-bearing mice that were treated with anti-PD-1 and anti-Tim-3 antibodies or isotype controls. (iii) Droplet-based single-cell RNA-Seq of Tim-3-PD-1- CD8+ TILs from MC38-OVA tumor-bearing WT mice that were treated with anti-PD-1 and anti-Tim-3 antibodies or isotype controls.
Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy Induces Dynamic Changes in PD-1<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup> Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells there has been intense interest in understanding the mechanisms that allow a somatic cell to be reprogrammed back to a pluripotent state. Several groups have studied the alterations in gene expression that occur as somatic cells modify their genome to that of an embryonic stem cell. Underpinning many of the gene expression changes are modifications to the epigenetic profile of the associated chromatin. We have used a large-scale shRNA screen to identify epigenetic modifiers that act as barriers to reprogramming. We have uncovered an important role for TRIM28 in cells resisting transition between somatic and pluripotent states. TRIM28 achieves this by maintaining the H3K9me3 repressed state and keeping endogenous retroviruses silenced. We propose that knockdown of TRIM28 during reprogramming results in more plastic H3K9me3 domains, dysregulation of genes nearby H3K9me3 marks, and up regulation of endogenous retroviruses, thus facilitating the transition through reprogramming. Overall design: Gene expression profiling using high through put sequencing at day 7 of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc (OSKM) expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts with or without Trim28 / Setdb1 knockdown
TRIM28 is an Epigenetic Barrier to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Reprogramming.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Mutations in both RAS and the PTEN/PIK3CA/AKT signaling module are found in the same human tumors. PIK3CA and AKT are downstream effectors of RAS, and the selective advantage conferred by mutation of two genes in the same pathway is unclear. Based on a comparative molecular analysis, we show that activated PIK3CA/AKT is a weaker inducer of senescence than is activated RAS. More-over, concurrent activation of RAS and PIK3CA/AKT impairs RAS-induced senescence.
Activation of the PIK3CA/AKT pathway suppresses senescence induced by an activated RAS oncogene to promote tumorigenesis.
Cell lineView Samples
OIS is characterized by a stable proliferation arrest and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Proliferation arrest and the SASP collaborate to enact tumor suppression, the former by blocking cell proliferation and the latter by recruiting immune cells to clear damaged cells. However, the interactions of OIS cells with the immune system are still poorly defined. Here we show that engagement of OIS in primary human melanocytes, specifically by melanoma driver mutations NRASQ61K and BRAFV600E, causes expression of the MHC class II antigen presentation apparatus, via secreted IL1ÃŸ signaling and expression of CIITA, a master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription. Overall design: We quantify transcription via high throughput RNA sequencing in nevus melanocytes in cross FVB/NJ mice with Cre inducible NRAS61K with an MHCII cross
Oncogene-Expressing Senescent Melanocytes Up-Regulate MHC Class II, a Candidate Melanoma Suppressor Function.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples