Reprogramming resident glia into functional and subtype-specific neurons in vivo by delivering reprogramming genes directly to the brain provides a step forward towards the possibility of treating brain injuries or diseases. Here, we show that neurons reprogrammed using Ascl1, Lmx1a and Nurr1 functionally mature and integrate into existing brain circuitry, and that the majority of the reprogrammed neurons have properties of fast spiking, parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Overall design: A total of 6 samples were analyzed. Each sample is consists of approximately 33 laser-captured reprogrammed-neurons identified by nuclear GFP and expressing the transcription factors Ascl1, Lmx1a and Nurr1 (ALN).
Direct Reprogramming of Resident NG2 Glia into Neurons with Properties of Fast-Spiking Parvalbumin-Containing Interneurons.
Sex, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The cytotoxic drug edelfosine is a synthetic analog of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine. Edelfosine is incorporated by highly proliferating cells, e.g. activated immune cells. It is unknown if the described mechanisms for edelfosine action attained by in vitro approaches exclusively contribute to the observed EAE-amelioration or if edelfosine may exert additional, probably more general and possibly immunoablative effects within the setting of autoimmunity.
The orally available, synthetic ether lipid edelfosine inhibits T cell proliferation and induces a type I interferon response.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
C3H10T1/2 stem cells are committed to the adipocyte lineage by treatment with BMP-4 and grown to postconfluence. When subjected to our standard differentiation protocol, the committed cells differentiate into adipocytes in a manner indistinguishable from that of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In contrast, C3H10T1/2 cells not committed with BMP-4 remain undifferentiated despite treatment with differentiation inducers. The molecular basis of the commitment process, however, has not been elucidated. Since postconfluent uncommitted and committed C3H10T1/2 cells respond differently to the differentiation inducers, it was reasoned that the two cell types differed at the gene expression level. Therefore, we undertook microarray gene expression profiling to detect changes between the two cell populations at postconfluence to identify expressed genes that may be responsible for the dramatic change in phenotype.
BMP-4 treatment of C3H10T1/2 stem cells blocks expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Amputation of heart tissue followed by regeneration of the heart. Samples were taken at 0 hpa (hours post-amputation), 6 hpa, 12 hpa, 24 hpa, 3 dpa and 5 dpa.
Simplet controls cell proliferation and gene transcription during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
The function of cell-cell contact for radiochemosensitivity is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of the E-cadherin/catenin complex proteins under more physiological three-dimensional (3D) cell culture conditions in a panel of CRC cell lines.
Differential effects of α-catenin on the invasion and radiochemosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells.
Cell lineView Samples
Pancreatic islets are central in type 2-diabetes development, which coincides with increased activity of innate immunity. Intriguingly, human pancreatic islets express many complement genes. The most highly expressed gene was the complement inhibitor CD59 that is GPI anchored to the cell membrane, which unexpectedly was found in high amounts intracellularly in beta cells. Silencing of CD59 strongly suppressed insulin secretion. Importantly, this suppression was unrelated to established CD59 functions, but rather depletion of intracellular CD59. Imaging experiments identified a distal site of inhibition in the exocytotic pathway, but prior to emptying of the insulin granules. Proximity Ligation Assays pin-pointed the mechanism to impaired turnover of exocytosis-regulating SNARE-proteins and CD59 was detected in complex with VAMP2 and syntaxin. CD59 was downregulated by 24-h glucose incubations in human islets, rat cell lines and in islets from three rodent diabetes models.
The complement inhibitor CD59 regulates insulin secretion by modulating exocytotic events.
Specimen partView Samples
Here we harnessed the potential of expression arrays in 89 human pancreatic islet donors (different levels of blood glucose (HbA1c)) to identify genes regulated in this relevant tissue for type 2 diabetes (T2D).
TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
By investigating the germinal center (GC) formation in STAT6ko/WT bone marrow-mixed chimera we found that GC formation in type 2 immune responses is dependent on B cell intrinsic expression of IL-4/IL-13-induced genes. We therefore used microarrays to find Stat6 dependent genes that are important for germinal center formation and/or organization after infection with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis).
B-cell-intrinsic STAT6 signaling controls germinal center formation.
Specimen partView Samples