In cytotoxic T cells (CTL), Protein Kinase B /Akt is activated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the cytokine Interleukin 2 (IL2), in part by phosophorylation of Akt by Phospholipid dependent kinase 1 (PDK1).
Protein kinase B controls transcriptional programs that direct cytotoxic T cell fate but is dispensable for T cell metabolism.
Specimen partView Samples
We found that PI3K inhibition increased the expression of stem cell markers in trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). To better understand the PI3K inhibited cells, we compared untreated TSCs with cells treated with PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 for 3h, 6h and 3 days. Overall design: Untreated TSCs, TSCs treated with 200nM ZSTK474 for 3h, 6h, and 3 days.
Inhibition of Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Signaling Promotes the Stem Cell State of Trophoblast.
Specimen part, Cell line, Subject, TimeView Samples
The heart adapts to increased workload through hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Although beneficial when induced physiologically by exercise, pathological cues including hypertension cause reexpression of fetal genes and dysfunctional hypertrophy, with lasting consequences for cardiac health. We hypothesised that these differences are driven by changes in chromatin-encoded cellular memory. We generated genome-wide maps of transcription and of two stable epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, specifically in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes, by selectively flow-sorting their nuclei. This demonstrated a pervasive loss of euchromatic H3K9me2 specifically upon pathological but not physiological hypertrophy, derepressing genes associated with pathological hypertrophy. Levels of the H3K9 methyltransferases, G9a and GLP, were correspondingly reduced. Importantly, pharmacological or genetic inactivation of these enzymes was sufficient to induce pathological hypertrophy and the dedifferentiation associated with it. These findings suggest novel therapeutic opportunities by defining an epigenetic state of cardiomyocytes, acquired during maturation, which is required for maintaining cardiac health. Overall design: Examination of 2 different histone modifications and RNA expression in cardiomyocyte nuclei flow-sorted from hypertrophic rat hearts
The H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1/2 protect against pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
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Bacterial infections cause exaserbations in COPD. Study conducted to asses the effect of Nemiralisib, a PI3Kdelta inhibitor, on S. pneumoniae infected mice
PI3Kδ hyper-activation promotes development of B cells that exacerbate Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in an antibody-independent manner.
Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Tumours progress despite being infiltrated by effector T cells. Tumour necrosis is associated with poor survival in a variety of cancers. Here, we report that that necrosis causes release of an intracellular ion, potassium, into the extracellular fluid of human and mouse tumours. Surprisingly, elevated extracellular potassium ([K+]e) was sufficient to profoundly suppress mouse and human T cell anti-tumour function. Elevations in [K+]e acted to acutely impair T cell receptor (TCR) dependent Akt-mTOR phosphorylation and effector function. Potassium mediated suppression of Akt-mTOR signalling and T cell effector function required intact activity of PP2A, a serine/threonine phosphatase. The suppressive effect mediated by elevated [K+]e required a T cell-intrinsic increase in intracellular potassium ([K+]i) and was independent of changes in plasma membrane potential (Vm). Finally, ionic reprogramming of tumour-specific T cells via over-expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 lowered [K+]i and improved effector functions in vitro and in vivo, with this gain of function being dependent on intact channel function. Consequently, Kv1.3 T cell expression enhanced tumour clearance and the survival of melanoma-bearing mice. These results uncover a previously undescribed ionic checkpoint against T cell function within tumours and identify new strategies for cancer immunotherapy. Overall design: RNA expression was measured by RNA-Seq on day 5 of cultures, maintained in individual biologial triplicates which were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3/28 antibodies or kept in complete media (no stim) - with equivalent conditions treated with isotonic media containing elevated potassium.
Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Through a diversity of functional lineages, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system either drive or constrain immune reactions within tumors. Thus, while the immune system has a powerful ability to recognize and kill cancer cells, this function is often suppressed preventing clearance of disease. The transcription factor (TF) BACH2 controls the differentiation and function of multiple innate and adaptive immune lineages, but its role in regulating tumor immunity is not known. Here, we demonstrate that BACH2 is required to establish immunosuppression within tumors. We found that growth of subcutaneously implanted tumors was markedly impaired in Bach2-deficient mice and coincided with intratumoral activation of both innate and adaptive immunity but was dependent upon adaptive immunity. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Bach2-deficient mice revealed high frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ effector cells expressing the inflammatory cytokine IFN-. Lymphocyte activation coincided with reduction in the frequency of intratumoral CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Mechanistically, Treg-dependent inhibition of CD8+ T cells was required for BACH2-mediated tumor immunosuppression. These findings demonstrate that BACH2 is a key component of the molecular programme of tumor immunosuppression and identify a new target for development of therapies aimed at reversing immunosuppression in cancer.
The transcription factor BACH2 promotes tumor immunosuppression.
Specimen partView Samples
Alginate overproduction by P. aeruginosa, also known as mucoidy is associated with chronic endobronchial infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). Alginate biosynthesis in this bacterium is initiated by the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor (22, AlgU/T). In the wild type (wt) nonmucoid strains, such as PAO1, AlgU is sequestered by the anti-sigma factor MucA that inhibits alginate production. However, the degradation of MucA by activated intramembrane proteases AlgW and/or MucP can lead to the conversion from nonmucoid strains to mucoid. Previously we reported that the absence of the sensor kinase KinB in PAO1 causes the initiation of AlgW-dependent proteolysis of MucA resulting in alginate overproduction. In the kinB mutant this activation requires alternate sigma factor RpoN (54). To determine the RpoN-dependent KinB regulon, microarray and proteomic analyses were performed on a mucoid kinB mutant and an isogenic nonmucoid kinB rpoN double mutant. In the kinB mutant, RpoN controlled the expression of approximately 20% of the genome. Besides alginate biosynthesis and regulator genes such as AlgW, KinB, in concert with RpoN, also control a large number of genes including: those involved in carbohydrate metabolism, quorum sensing, iron regulation, rhamnolipid production, and motility. In an acute pneumonia murine infection model, mice exhibited better survival when challenged with the kinB mutant than wt PAO1. Together, these data strongly suggest that KinB controls virulence factors important for acute pneumonia and conversion to mucoidy.
Analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulon controlled by the sensor kinase KinB and sigma factor RpoN.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa response regulator AlgR is critical for the organism's virulence and controls up to 155 different genes. In order to determine which genes are controlled by phosphorylated and unphosphorylated AlgR, phosphomimetic and phosphoablative alleles were recombined onto the chromosome of PAO1. The algR gene was mutated at aspartate 54 to asparagine (D54N) for the phosphoablative allele and mutated at aspartete 54 to glutamate (D54E) for the phosphomimetic allele. These alleles were recombined into the PAO1 chromosome.
<i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> AlgR Phosphorylation Status Differentially Regulates Pyocyanin and Pyoverdine Production.
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