During the peri-partum period, the lung must respond to many factors with potential to impact protein synthesis via regulation of translation initiation. Microarray analysis of polysomal versus total RNA from fetal day (FD) 19, FD22 and postnatal day 1 (P1) rat lungs was used to identify genes whose association with large polysomes changed either pre- or postnatally.
Global and gene-specific translational regulation in rat lung development.
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Purpose: Marked extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling occurs in the human optic nerve head in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) negative lamina cribrosa cell may play an important role in this remodeling process. The authors report the first study of global and ECM-focused gene transcription differentials between GFAP-negative negative lamina cribrosa (LC) cells from normal and POAG human donors. Methods: GFAP-negative LC cell lines were generated from the optic nerve tissue of three normal (n=3) and three POAG (n=3) human donors. Using Affymetrix U133A arrays the transcriptional profile between the normal and diseased groups were compared. Bioinformatic analysis was carried out using robust multichip average (RMA Express) and EASE/David. Real time TaqMan PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to validate the microarray data. Results: 285 genes were up regulated by greater than 1.5 fold and 413 were down regulated by greater than 1.5 fold in the POAG LC cells versus normal controls. Upregulated genes in POAG LC cells included, SPARC, periostin, thrombospondin, CRTL-1, CTGF and collagen types I, III, V and VIII. Downregulated ECM genes in POAG included MMP-1, fibulin, decorin and tenacsin XB. All TaqMan PCR validation assays were significant (*p<0.05) and consistent with the array data. Immunohistochemistry of one target (periostin) confirmed its differential expression at the protein level in POAG optic nerve head tissue compared with non-glaucomatous controls. Functional annotation and over-representation analysis identified ECM genes as a statistically over-represented class of genes in POAG LC cells compared with normal LC cells. Conclusions: This study reports for the first time that POAG LC cells in-vitro demonstrate up regulated ECM and pro-fibrotic gene expression compared with normal LC cells. This may be a pathological characteristic of this cell type in POAG in-vivo. We believe that the LC cell may be a pivotal regulator of optic nerve head ECM remodeling and an attractive target for future therapeutic strategies in POAG.
Differential global and extra-cellular matrix focused gene expression patterns between normal and glaucomatous human lamina cribrosa cells.
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Background: The first step in SARS-CoV-2 infection is binding of the virus to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the airway epithelium. Asthma affects over 300 million people world-wide, many of whom may encounter SARS-CoV-2. Epidemiologic data suggests that asthmatics who get infected may be at increased risk of more severe disease. Our objective was to assess whether maintenance inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a major treatment for asthma, is associated with airway ACE2 expression in asthmatics.
Up-regulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, in asthmatics on maintenance inhaled corticosteroids.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
The retinas of simian primates include a specialized, cone-rich, macula which regards the central visual field and mediates high acuity and colour vision. A prominent feature of the macula is the fovea centralis - a 1 mm-wide, avascular depression in the inner retinal surface that corresponds with a local absence of rods and a peak spatial density of cones in the outer photoreceptor layer. The arrangement of macular photoreceptors, and their specialized midget circuits, are the neural substrate for high resolution vision in primates. Macular-specific photoreceptor loss and abnormal blood vessel growth within the macula are the major causes of untreatable vision loss worldwide. However, the genes that regulate specialization of the macula, and the causes of its vulnerability to degeneration, remain obscure. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression between macula and non-macular regions during a critical phase of human retinal vascular development.
Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula.
Specimen partView Samples
Vascular hypoperfusion is a pathological phenomenon in the glaucomatous optic nerve head. We report transcriptional responses in GFAP-negative LC cells exposed to in-vitro hypoxic stress (1%O2).
Hypoxia regulated gene transcription in human optic nerve lamina cribrosa cells in culture.
Specimen partView Samples
In this study we tested the ability to predict organ injury from transcriptomics data in Sprague-Dawley rats at early time points after exposure to thioacetmide (8 and 24 hours). We selected thioacetamide, an organosulfur compound extensively used in animal studies as a hepatotoxin and carcinogen for its ability to cause acute liver damage. Overall design: We treated 30 Sprague-Dawley rats with saline solution (control), 25 mg/kg (low dose), and 100 mg/kg (high dose) to produce different degrees of injury. RNA samples for gene expression analysis were collected from the liver, kidney, and heart at 8 and 24 hours. Number of repicates were five.
Concordance between Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Injury in Rat and Human In Vitro Gene Expression Data.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Female mouse models of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) have not yet been identified. Our aim is firstly to demonstrate that female BTBR ob/ob mice display robust DPN and secondly, to perform relevant comparisons with non-diabetic and gender-matched controls. Lastly, microarray technology was employed to identify dysregulated genes and pathways in the SCN and DRG of female BTBR mice. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve (SCN) were removed from female mice, RNA isolated and processed for gene expression profiling to identify differentially expressed genes using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays.
BTBR ob/ob mice as a novel diabetic neuropathy model: Neurological characterization and gene expression analyses.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
SynapTRAP. Identification of Synaptic mRNA of neurons of the cortex. Technique combines sucrose percoll fractionation of a synaptically rich sample (SN) and TRAP tagged ribosome IP (PreIP and PostIP). This experiment uses pan neuronal SNAP25 mice and a cortical dissection. Overall design: Three replicates of four samples.
Transcriptomic Analysis of Ribosome-Bound mRNA in Cortical Neurites <i>In Vivo</i>.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) have been implicated in diverse physiological functions, including smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell migration and inflammation. Many aspects of regulation via ROCK and ZIPK, however, remain unclear. In this study, we utilized an siRNA approach to knock down ROCK1 and ZIPK in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells. Microarray analysis was performed, using a whole-transcript expression chip, to identify changes in gene expression profiles induced by ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. ROCK1 knockdown affected the expression of 553 genes (355 down-regulated and 198 up-regulated), while ZIPK knockdown affected the expression of 390 genes (219 down-regulated and 171 up-regulated). A high incidence of up- and down-regulation of transcription regulator genes was observed in both ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdowns. Other markedly affected groups included transporters, kinases, peptidases, transmembrane and G protein-coupled receptors, growth factors, phosphatases and ion channels. Three microRNAs (mir-145, mir-199 and mir-622) were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown had no effect on microRNA expression. 76 differentially expressed genes were common to ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown, of which 41 were down-regulated and 26 up-regulated by both treatments, while the other 9 genes were differentially up/down-regulated. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified five pathways shared between the two knockdowns, which are mainly involved in cell cycle regulation. Marked differences in the effects of ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown on the genes involved in cell cycle regulation suggested that ROCK1 and ZIPK regulate the cell cycle by different mechanisms. ROCK1, but not ZIPK knockdown significantly reduced the viability of vascular SMC. ROCK1 knockdown also affected several cytokine signaling pathways with up-regulation of 5 and down-regulation of 4 cytokine genes, in contrast to ZIPK knockdown, which affected the expression of only two cytokine genes (both down-regulated). IL-6 gene expression and secretion of IL-6 protein were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown reduced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion and ROCK1 protein expression, suggesting that ROCK1 may inhibit IL-6 secretion. IL-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to ROCK1 knockdown. Finally, ROCK1 but not ZIPK knockdown inhibited proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We conclude that ROCK1 and ZIPK have diverse, but predominantly distinct regulatory functions in vascular smooth muscle cells.
The effects of knockdown of rho-associated kinase 1 and zipper-interacting protein kinase on gene expression and function in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The rapid decline of ovarian function in TAF4b-null mice begins in early postnatal life and follicle depletion is completed by sixteen weeks.
Accelerated ovarian aging in the absence of the transcription regulator TAF4B in mice.
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