Acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients is still a contributing factor to limited survival of the implanted heart. Currently there are no biomarkers in clinical use that can predict, at the time of transplantation, the likelihood of post-transplantation acute rejection, which would be of great importance for personalizing immunosuppressive treatment. Within the Biomarkers in Transplantation initiative, the predictive biomarker discovery focused on data and samples collected before or during transplantation such as: clinical variables, genes and proteins from the recipient, and genes from the donor. Based on this study, the best predictive biomarker panel contains genes from the recipient whole blood and from donor endomyocardial tissue and has an estimated area under the curve of 0.90. This biomarker panel provides clinically relevant prediction power and may help personalize immunosuppressive treatment and frequency of rejection monitoring.
Predicting acute cardiac rejection from donor heart and pre-transplant recipient blood gene expression.
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In this study we aimed to assess technical variability associated with globin depletion in addition to assessing general technical variability in RNA-Seq from whole blood derived samples. We compared technical and biological replicates having undergone globin depletion or not and found that globin depletion removed approximately 80% of globin transcripts, improved the correlation of technical replicates, allowed for reliable detection of thousands of additional transcripts and generally increased transcript abundance measures. Overall design: Peripheral whole blood transcriptome assessed by RNA-Seq on Illumina HiSeq 2000 in 6 healthy individuals and 6 pooled samples, either globin depleted or not.
Variation in RNA-Seq transcriptome profiles of peripheral whole blood from healthy individuals with and without globin depletion.
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Chromatin-based functional genomic analyses and genomewide association studies (GWASs) together implicate enhancers as critical elements influencing gene expression and risk for common diseases. Here, we performed systematic chromatin and transcriptome profiling in human pancreatic islets. Integrated analysis of islet data with those generated by the ENCODE project in nine cell types identified specific and significant enrichment of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative trait GWAS variants in islet enhancers. Our integrated chromatin maps reveal that most enhancers are short (median = 0.8 kb). Each cell type also contains a substantial number of more extended (=3 kb) enhancers. Interestingly, these stretch enhancers are often tissue-specific and overlap locus control regions, suggesting that they are important chromatin regulatory beacons. Indeed, we show that (i) tissue specificity of enhancers and nearby gene expression increase with enhancer length; (ii) neighborhoods containing stretch enhancers are enriched for important cell type-specific genes; and (iii) GWAS variants associated with traits relevant to a particular cell type are more enriched in stretch enhancers compared with short enhancers. Reporter constructs containing stretch enhancer sequences exhibited tissue-specific activity in cell culture experiments and in transgenic mice. These results suggest that stretch enhancers are critical chromatin elements for coordinating cell type-specific regulatory programs and that sequence variation in stretch enhancers affects risk of major common human diseases. Overall design: Integrated analysis of islet chromatin modification and transcriptome data with those generated by the ENCODE project. NISC Comparative Sequencing Program
Chromatin stretch enhancer states drive cell-specific gene regulation and harbor human disease risk variants.
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In this dataset, we included expression data obtained from 30 resected human PDAC tumors, to examine what genes are differentially expressed in different cohorts that might lead to various outcomes
Identification of unique neoantigen qualities in long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer.
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Renal excretion of water and major electrolytes exhibits a significant circadian rhythm. This functional periodicity is believed to result, at least in part, from circadian changes in secretion/reabsorption capacities of the distal nephron and collecting ducts. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in the distal nephron segments, i.e. distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and connecting tubule (CNT) and, the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Temporal expression analysis performed on microdissected mouse DCT/CNT or CCD revealed a marked circadian rhythmicity in the expression of a large number of genes crucially involved in various homeostatic functions of the kidney. This analysis also revealed that both DCT/CNT and CCD possess an intrinsic circadian timing system characterized by robust oscillations in the expression of circadian core clock genes (clock, bma11, npas2, per, cry, nr1d1) and clock-controlled Par bZip transcriptional factors dbp, hlf and tef. The clock knockout mice or mice devoid of dbp/hlf/tef (triple knockout) exhibit significant changes in renal expression of several key regulators of water or sodium balance (vasopressin V2 receptor, aquaporin-2, aquaporin-4, alphaENaC). Functionally, the loss of clock leads to a complex phenotype characterized by partial diabetes insipidus, dysregulation of sodium excretion rhythms and a significant decrease in blood pressure. Collectively, this study uncovers a major role of molecular clock in renal function.
Molecular clock is involved in predictive circadian adjustment of renal function.
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The circadian clock controls a wide variety of metabolic and homeostatic processes in a number of tissues, including the kidney. However, the role of the renal circadian clocks remains largely unknown. To address this question we performed transcriptomic analysis in mice with inducible and conditional ablation of the circadian clock system in the renal tubular cells (Bmal1lox/lox/Pax8-rtTA/LC1 mice). Deep sequencing of the renal transcriptome revealed significant changes in the expression of genes related to metabolic pathways and organic anion transport. In parallel, kidneys from Bmal1lox/lox/Pax8-rtTA/LC1 mice exhibited a significant decrease in the NAD+/NADH ratio suggesting an increased anaerobic glycolysis and/or decreased mitochondrial function. In-depth analysis of two selected pathways revealed (i) a significant increase in plasma urea levels correlating with increased renal arginase 2 (Arg2) activity, hyperargininemia and increase of the kidney arginine content; (ii) a significantly increased plasma creatinine concentration and reduced capacity of the kidney to secrete anionic drugs (furosemide), paralleled by a ~80% decrease in the expression levels of organic anion transporter OAT3 (SLC22a8). Collectively, these results indicate that the renal circadian clocks control a variety of metabolic/homeostatic processes at both the intra-renal and systemic levels and are involved in drug disposition. Overall design: Mice with a specific ablation of the Arntl gene encoding BMAL1 in the renal tubular cells were compared to wild-type littermate at ZT4 and ZT16 (ZT â€“ Zeitgeber time units; ZT0 is the time of light on and ZT12 is the time of light off).
Nephron-Specific Deletion of Circadian Clock Gene Bmal1 Alters the Plasma and Renal Metabolome and Impairs Drug Disposition.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
NPY signalling via osteoblastic Y1 receptors has been shown to control bone mass but also contributes significantly to the control of whole-body insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in mice through the release of novel factor(s) which are different from the previously implicated osteocalcin.
Osteoglycin, a novel coordinator of bone and glucose homeostasis.
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A major goal of systems biology is the development of models that accurately predict responses to perturbation. Constructing such models requires the collection of dense measurements of system states, yet transformation of data into predictive constructs remains a challenge. To begin to model human immunity, we analyzed immune parameters in depth both at baseline and in response to influenza vaccination.
Global analyses of human immune variation reveal baseline predictors of postvaccination responses.
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The ability to form memories is a prerequisite for an organismâ€™s behavioural adaptation to environmental changes. At the molecular level, the acquisition and maintenance of memory requires changes in chromatin modifications. In an effort to unravel the epigenetic network underlying both short- and long-term memory, we examined chromatin modification changes in two distinct mouse brain regions, two cell-types, and three time-points before and after contextual learning. Here we show that histone modifications predominantly change during memory acquisition and correlate surprisingly little with changes in gene expression. While long-lasting changes are almost exclusive to neurons, learning-related histone modification and DNA methylation changes occur also in non-neuronal cell types, suggesting a functional role for non-neuronal cells in epigenetic learning. Finally, our data provides evidence for a molecular framework of memory acquisition and maintenance, wherein DNA methylation could alter the expression and splicing of genes involved in functional plasticity and synaptic wiring. Overall design: We examined chromatin modification changes in two distinct mouse brain regions (CA1 and ACC), two cell-types (neurons, non-neurons), and three time-points before and after contextual learning (naive, 1h, 4w).
DNA methylation changes in plasticity genes accompany the formation and maintenance of memory.
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Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguishedâ€”training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months. Strikingly, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's pathology, immune training exacerbates cerebral beta-amyloidosis and immune tolerance alleviates it; similarly, peripheral immune stimulation modifies pathological features after stroke. Our results identify immune memory in the brain as an important modifier of neuropathology. Overall design: mRNA was isolated from FACS-purified microglia and prepared for RNA-sequencing.
Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks.
Sex, Specimen part, Treatment, SubjectView Samples