Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with many diseases and conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of 4 types of HT on gene transcription. 24 women (6 women in 4 treatment groups) received 2 mg 17-estradiol combined with 1 mg noresthisterone acetate (NETA), 1 mg 17-estradiol combined with 0.5 mg NETA, tibolone, or raloxifene hydrochloride. RNA was isolated from whole blood before treatment (baseline) and after 6 weeks on treatment. The changes in mRNA from baseline to 6 weeks were assessed with a microarray chip.
A microarray study on the effect of four hormone therapy regimens on gene transcription in whole blood from healthy postmenopausal women.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
GM-CSF signaling was previously reported to have a negative effect on a murine model of (8;21)-induced leukemia. Gene expression profiling of MigR1 (Mig) control and RUNX1-ETO (RE), the oncofusion protein generated from t(8;21), murine Lin-/c-Kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) was conducted to further elucidate the mechanisms mediating the negative effect induced by GM-CSF signaling in t(8;21) cells,
Restoration of MYC-repressed targets mediates the negative effects of GM-CSF on RUNX1-ETO leukemogenicity.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
[original title] LMP-420: a novel purine nucleoside analogue with potent cytotoxic effects for chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and minimal toxicity for normal hematopoietic cells.
LMP-420: a novel purine nucleoside analog with potent cytotoxic effects for CLL cells and minimal toxicity for normal hematopoietic cells.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) is associated with developmental abnormalities and increased leukemia risk. To reconcile chromatin alterations with transcriptome changes in cells with trisomy 21, we performed paired exogenous spike-in normalized RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in DS models. Absolute per cell normalization unmasked global amplification of gene expression associated with trisomy 21. Overexpression of the nucleosome binding protein HMGN1 (encoded on chr21q22) recapitulated the transcriptional changes seen with triplication of a “Down syndrome critical region” on distal chromosome 21. Absolute exogenous normalized ChIP-seq (ChIP-Rx) also revealed a global increase in histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation caused by HMGN1. Genes most amplified downstream of HMGN1 were enriched for tumor- and developmental stage-specific programs of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia dependent on the cellular context. These data offer a mechanistic explanation for DS transcriptional patterns, and suggest that further study of HMGN1 and RNA amplification in diverse DS phenotypes is warranted. Overall design: SLAM-seq in NALM6 human pre-B cells with engineered HMGN1 overexpression
Trisomy of a Down Syndrome Critical Region Globally Amplifies Transcription via HMGN1 Overexpression.
Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise three groups of recently identified tissue resident immune cell lineages that play critical roles in protective immune responses and tissue homeostasis. While significant progress has been made in defining the key protein mediators of ILC development and function, how cis-acting epigenetic regulatory elements or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate ILCs is unknown. Herein, we describe a cis-regulatory element demarcated by a novel lncRNA that controls the maturation, function and lineage identity of group 1 ILCs while being dispensable for early ILC development and homeostasis of mature ILC2s and ILC3s. We named this ILC1-restricted lncRNA Rroid. The Rroid locus controls the functional specification and lineage identity of ILC1 by promoting chromatin accessibility and STAT5 deposition at the promoter of its neighboring gene, Id2, in response to the ILC1-specific cytokine IL-15. Overall design: RNA-seq for gene expression in mouse NK cells
Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Lineage Identity Is Determined by a cis-Regulatory Element Marked by a Long Non-coding RNA.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
To identify genes dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD1) we carried out global gene expression profiling using whole-genome microarrays. To minimize genetic variation in gene expression levels between cases and controls we compared expression profiles in lymphoblastoid cell lines from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for the disease. We identified 82 genes that were differentially expressed by 1.3-fold in 3 BD1 cases compared to their co-twins, and which were statistically (p 0.05) differentially expressed between the groups of BD1 cases and controls. Using qRT-PCR we confirmed the differential expression of some of these genes, including: KCNK1, MAL, PFN2, TCF7, PGK1, and PI4KCB, in at least 2 of the twin pairs. In contrast to the findings of a previous study by Kakiuchi and colleagues with similar discordant BD1 twin design1 our data do not support the dysregulation of XBP1 and HSPA5. From pathway and gene ontology analysis we identified up-regulation of the WNT signalling pathway and the biological process of apoptosis. The differentially regulated genes and pathways identified in this study may provide insights into the biology of BD1.
Expression profiling in monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder reveals dysregulation of the WNT signalling pathway.
The expression level for 15 887 transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 19 monozygotic twin pairs (10 male, 9 female) were analysed for the effects of genotype and sex. On an average, the effect of twin pairs explained 31% of the variance in normalized gene expression levels, consistent with previous broad sense heritability estimates. The effect of sex on gene expression levels was most noticeable on the X chromosome, which contained 15 of the 20 significantly differentially expressed genes. A high concordance was observed between the sex difference test statistics and surveys of genes escaping X chromosome inactivation. Notably, several autosomal genes showed significant differences in gene expression between the sexes despite much of the cellular environment differences being effectively removed in the cell lines. A publicly available gene expression data set from the CEPH families was used to validate the results. The heritability of gene expression levels as estimated from the two data sets showed a highly significant positive correlation, particularly when both estimates were close to one and thus had the smallest standard error. There was a large concordance between the genes significantly differentially expressed between the sexes in the two data sets. Analysis of the variability of probe binding intensities within a probe set indicated that results are robust to the possible presence of polymorphisms in the target sequences.
Replicated effects of sex and genotype on gene expression in human lymphoblastoid cell lines.
To better characterize the role of whole pericardial adipose tissue (PCAT) in the pathogenesis of disease, we performed a large-scale unbiased analysis of the transcriptional differences between pericardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue, analysing 53 microarrays across 19 individuals.
Pattern specification and immune response transcriptional signatures of pericardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Histological grading of breast cancer defines morphological subtypes informative of metastatic potential, although not without considerable inter-observer disagreement and clinical heterogeneity particularly among the moderately differentiated grade II (G2) tumors. We posited that a gene expression signature capable of discerning tumors of grade I (G1) and grade III (G3) histology might provide a more objective measure of grade with prognostic benefit for patients with moderately differentiated disease. To this end, we studied the expression profiles of 347 primary invasive breast tumors analyzed on Affymetrix microarrays. Using class prediction algorithms, we identified 264 robust grade-associated markers, six of which could accurately classify G1 and G3 tumors, and separate G2 tumors into two highly discriminant classes (termed G2a and G2b genetic grades) with patient survival outcomes highly similar to those with G1 and G3 histology, respectively. Statistical analysis of conventional clinical variables further distinguished G2a and G2b subtypes from each other, but also from histologic G1 and G3 tumors. In multivariate analyses, genetic grade was consistently found to be an independent prognostic indicator of disease recurrence comparable to that of lymph node status and tumor size. When incorporated into the Nottingham Prognostic Index, genetic grade enhanced detection of patients with less harmful tumors, likely to benefit little from adjuvant therapy. Our findings show that a genetic grade signature can improve prognosis and therapeutic planning for breast cancer patients, and support the view that low and high grade disease, as defined genetically, reflect independent pathobiological entities rather than a continuum of cancer progression. Three separate breast cancer cohorts were analyzed: 1) Uppsala (n=249), 2) Stockholm (n=58), 3) Singapore (n=40). The Uppsala and Singapore data can be accessed here. The Stockholm cohort data can be accessed at GEO Series GSE1456.
Genetic reclassification of histologic grade delineates new clinical subtypes of breast cancer.
Age, Disease stageView Samples
Intestinal macrophages rely on the constant replenishment by bone marrow derived Ly6Chigh monocytes in the adult organism. The developmental path from monocytes towards intestinal macrophages locally in the tissue is defined by the loss of Ly6C and acquisition of MHCII and CX3CR1 expression. We used microarray analysis to further characterise this local differentiation process.
Tissue-specific differentiation of colonic macrophages requires TGFβ receptor-mediated signaling.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples