SFMBT1 is a poorly characterized mammalian MBT domain-containing protein homologous to Drosophila SFMBT, a Polycomb group protein involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Here, we show that SFMBT1 regulates transcription in somatic cells and during spermatogenesis through the formation of a stable complex with LSD1 and CoREST. When bound to its gene targets, SFMBT1 recruits its associated proteins and causes chromatin compaction and transcriptional repression. SFMBT1, LSD1, and CoREST share a large fraction of target genes including those encoding replication-dependent histones. Simultaneous occupancy of histone genes by SFMBT1, LSD1, and CoREST is regulated during the cell cycle and correlates with the loss of RNA polymerase II at these promoters during G2, M, and G1. The interplay between the repressive SFMBT1–LSD1–CoREST complex and RNA polymerase II contributes to the timely transcriptional regulation of histone genes in human cells. SFMBT1, LSD1, and CoREST also form a stable complex in germ cells and their chromatin binding activity is regulated during spermatogenesis. Overall design: RNA-seq in HeLaS3 cells ctrl compared to triple knockdown for SFMBT1, CoREST, and LSD1
SFMBT1 functions with LSD1 to regulate expression of canonical histone genes and chromatin-related factors.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Zebrafish CNS-PNET tumors were generated by activating NRAS in oligoneural precursor cells. Gene expression in the zebrafish brain tumors and normal zebrafish brain was analyzed by RNA-seq. Overall design: RNA-seq was performed on 7 zebrafish brain tumors and 8 normal brain samples on Illumina HiSeq 2000 using 50 Cycle Single-Read Sequencing v3 kit.
MEK Inhibitors Reverse Growth of Embryonal Brain Tumors Derived from Oligoneural Precursor Cells.
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The PA0336 protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the family of widely distributed Nudix pyrophosphohydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bonds in a variety of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. The amino acid sequence of the PA0336 protein is highly similar to that of the RppH Nudix RNA pyrophosphohydrolase from E. coli which removes pyrophosphate from 5'-end of triphosphorylated RNA transcripts. Trans-complementation experiments showed that the P. aeruginosa enzyme can functionally substitute for RppH in E. coli cells indicating that, similarly to RppH, the Pseudomonas hydrolase mediates RNA turnover in vivo. In order to elucidate the biological significance of the PA0336 protein in Pseudomonas cells, a PA0336 mutant strain was constructed. The mutated strain considerably increased level of the virulence factor pyocyanin compared to wild type, suggesting that PA0336 could be involved in down-regulation of P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. This phenotype was reversed by complementation with the wild type, but not catalytically inactive PA0336, indicating that the catalytic activity was indispensable for its biological function. To study the role of PA0336 further, transcriptomes of the PA0336 mutant and the wild type strain were compared using RNA sequencing. The cellular level of a number of transcripts was affected by the lack of PA0336. We focused our attention on pathogenesis-related genes. Up-regulated in the PA0336 mutant were transcripts coding for, i. a., proteins involved in the regulation and/or production of pyocyanin, biofim-associated alginates and exotoxins. The results from the global analysis were verified by determining the cellular level of chosen transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR method. Pathogenesis tests in Caenorhabditis elegans showed that the PA0336 mutant of P. aeruginosa was significantly more virulent than the parental strain, confirming further that the P. aeruginosa RNA pyrophosphohydrolase PA0336 modulates bacterial pathogenesis by down-regulating production of virulence factors. Overall design: Study comparing RNA expression of P. aeruginosa PA0336 mutant strain with wild type reference, both in biological triplicates, by RNA-seq performed on Ion Torrent Proton platform
Nudix-type RNA pyrophosphohydrolase provides homeostasis of virulence factor pyocyanin and functions as a global regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Gene expression profiles 6 hours post-influenza A virus infection in human monocytes at multiplicities of infection of 10 versus uninfected monocytes
Viral infection triggers rapid differentiation of human blood monocytes into dendritic cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Accurate and reproducible quantitation of target genes depends on correct normalization. Historically, genes with variable tissue transcription e.g. GAPDH, have been used as normalization factors which is problematic, particularly in clinical samples which often are derived from different tissue sources. Using a large-scale gene database (GeneChip (Affymetrix U133A) dataset of 36 gastrointestinal tumors and normal tissues), we identified 8 candidate reference genes that were highly expressed with low variability and established expression levels by real-time RT-PCR in an independent set of GI tissue samples (n=42).
GeneChip, geNorm, and gastrointestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Integration of multiple signals shapes cell adaptation to their microenvironment through synergistic and antagonistic interactions. The combinatorial complexity governing signal integration for multiple cellular output responses has not been resolved. For outputs measured in the conditions 0 (control), signals X, Y, X+Y, combinatorial analysis revealed 82 possible interaction profiles, which we biologically assimilated to 5 positive, and 5 negative interaction modes. To experimentally validate their use in living cells, we designed an original computational workflow, and applied it to transcriptomics data of innate immune cells integrating physiopathological signal combinations. Up to 9 of the 10 defined modes coexisted in context-dependent proportions. Each integration mode was enriched in specific molecular pathways, suggesting a coupling between genes involved in particular functions, and the corresponding mode of integration. We propose that multimodality and functional coupling are general principles underlying the systems level integration of physiopathological and pharmacological stimuli by mammalian cells.
Combinatorial code governing cellular responses to complex stimuli.
Neutrophil recruitment is pivotal to host defense against microbial infection, but also contributes to the immunopathology of disease. We investigated the mechanism of neutrophil recruitment in human infectious disease by bioinformatic pathways analysis of the gene expression profiles in the skin lesions of leprosy. In erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), which occurs in patients with lepromatous leprosy (L-lep), and is characterized by neutrophil infiltration in lesions, the most overrepresented biologic functional group was 'cell movement' including E-selectin, which was coordinately regulated with IL-1beta. In vitro activation of TLR2, upregulated in ENL lesions, triggered induction of IL-1beta, which together with IFN-gamma, induced E-selectin expression on, and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. Thalidomide, an effective treatment for ENL, inhibited this neutrophil recruitment pathway. The gene expression profile of ENL lesions comprised an integrated pathway of TLR2/FcR activation, neutrophil migration and inflammation, providing insight into mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment in human infectious disease.
Integrated pathways for neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in leprosy.
Specimen partView Samples
Comparison of Mpl-/- mouse LSK cells, either treated with control (GFP) or Mpl lentivirus. Lineage negative bone marrow cells were isolated and transduced and transplanted into Mpl-/- recipient mice. After transplantation and follow up mice were sacrificed and LSK (lineage negative, Sca-1 positive, cKit positive) cells were isolated by FACS. RNA was isolated using RNeasy Micro Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) and RNA was amplified for microarray hybridization using the Nugen Ovation system (Nugen Technologies, AC Bemmel, Netherlands). The resulting material was hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 arrays. RMA normalization and summarization was performed in R 2.10 using Bioconductor packages. The aim was to show the normalization of Mpl associated gene expression.
Lentiviral gene transfer regenerates hematopoietic stem cells in a mouse model for Mpl-deficient aplastic anemia.
Specimen partView Samples
Successful host defense against pathogens requires innate immune recognition of the correct pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) to trigger the appropriate gene program tailored to the pathogen. While many PRR pathways have been shown to contribute to the innate immune response to specific pathogens, the relative importance of each pathway for the complete transcriptional program elicited has not been examined in detail. Herein, we used RNA-sequencing with wildtype and mutant macrophages to delineate the innate immune pathways responsible for the early transcriptional response to Staphylococcus aureus, a ubiquitous microorganism that can activate a wide variety of PRRs. Unexpectedly, only two PRR pathways â€“ the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Stimulator of Interferon Gene (STING) pathways - were identified as dominant regulators of approximately 95% of the genes that were potently induced within the first four hours of macrophage infection with live S. aureus. TLR signaling predominantly activated an inflammatory program, STING signaling activated an antiviral/type I interferon response, and both pathways contributed to a program linking innate and adaptive immunity. Only a small number of genes were induced in the absence of TLR or STING signaling, and these genes possessed a strong hypoxia signature. STING pathway activation required live S. aureus and was largely dependent on the DNA sensor cyclic guanosine-adenosine synthase (cGAS) recognition of S. aureus DNA. Interestingly, using a cutaneous infection model, we found that the TLR and STING pathways played opposite roles in host defense to S. aureus, with TLR signaling being required for protective interleukin (IL)-1? and neutrophil recruitment and STING signaling having an opposite effect. These results provide novel insights into the complex interplay of innate immune signaling pathways triggered byS. aureus and uncover opposing roles of TLR and STING in cutaneous host defense to S. aureus. Overall design: Files are labeled according to the figures in which they were used. Note, that many data files were used in multiple figures or figure panels. Files are labeled by genotype of macrophages (WT=wildtype; KO= StingGt/Gt; DKO=MyD88-/-TRIF-/-) and whether the macrophages were treated with live (Live) or heat killed (HK) or uninfected (zero hour). Labeling of time points is in the order of "minutes_replicate #." For example, "WT_HK_30_2" indicates that this is wild type mouse macrophages stimulated with heat killed bacteria at the 30-minute time point and is replicate number 2. Reads were converted into RPKM, and the RPKM for all replicates listed for a given time point were averaged to obtain the average RPKM that was used for figures and analyses. For samples listed as contributing to either figure 3 or supplemental figure 2, the replicates that do NOT end in either KO_analysis nor DKO analysis were used to determine induced genes in wild type macrophages. In contrast, the replicates that end in KO_analysis or DKO_analysis were used to determine dependence on either STING signaling or MyD88/TRIF signaling, respectively. If a replicate was used in the STING or MyD88/TRIF dependence analysis for both live and heat-killed S. aureus, "live_and_hk" was added after the dependence analysis it contributed to. Some 0h samples were used in both live and heat-killed analyses.
Opposing roles of Toll-like receptor and cytosolic DNA-STING signaling pathways for Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous host defense.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Mouse LT-HSC were sorted and cultured in mScf, mTpo, mFlt3L, hIGFBP2 and Angptl5 for 2 days. These expression values were related to insertions of gamma-retroviral, lentiviral or alpharetroviral vectors carrying GFP which were retrieved after serial murine BM transplantation. The relation between gene expression in the cells responsible for long-term hematopoiesis and location of vector integration was investigated.
Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors: long-term transgene expression in murine hematopoietic cells and low genotoxicity.
Specimen partView Samples