Conventional anti-cancer drug screening is typically performed in the absence of accessory cells (e.g. stromal cells) of the tumor microenvironment, which can profoundly alter anti-tumor drug activity. To address this major limitation, we have developed assays (e.g. the tumor cell-specific in vitro bioluminescence imaging (CS-BLI) assay) to selectively quantify tumor cell viability, in presence vs. absence of non-malignant stromal cells or drug treatment. These assays have allowed us to identify that neoplastic cells from diverse malignancies exhibit stroma-induced resistance to different anti-tumor agents. In this analysis, we evaluated the molecular changes triggered in myeloma cells by their in vitro interaction with stromal cells. The transcriptional profile of 3 human multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (MM.1S, MM.1R, INA-6) co-cultured with stromal cells vs. when cultured alone was characterized by oligonucleotide microarray analysis, using the human U133 plus 2.0 Affymetrix GeneChip.
Tumor cell-specific bioluminescence platform to identify stroma-induced changes to anticancer drug activity.
Cell lineView Samples
In this study, we sought to establish the usefulness of LCM on cDNA microarray analysis. We reported that LCM samples improved the sensitivity of detection of differentially expressed genes over conventional bulk tissue analysis. We also provided the new information of chemokine and its receptor interaction within psoriatic lesional skin.
Combined use of laser capture microdissection and cDNA microarray analysis identifies locally expressed disease-related genes in focal regions of psoriasis vulgaris skin lesions.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Estrogen signaling pathway is critical for breast cancer development and has remained the major adjuvant therapeutic target for this disease. Tamoxifen has been used in clinic for many years to treat ER-positive breast cancer. However a great many (30%) suffer relapse due to drug resistance. In this study, the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 was found to down-regulate ERalpha gene expression and have anti-tumor effect in cultured tamoxifen-resisant breast cancer cells.
An epigenomic approach to therapy for tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Purpose: Primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be an invasive cancer in skin and has the potential to metastasize. We aimed to define the cancer related molecular changes that distinguish non-invasive from invasive SCC.
Gene expression profiling of the leading edge of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: IL-24-driven MMP-7.
We previously found a short sleeper mutant, fmn, and identified its mutation in the dopamine transporter gene. In an attempt to discover additional sleep related genes in Drosophila, we carried out a microarray analysis comparing mRNA expression in heads of fmn and control flies and found differentially expressed genes.
The NMDA Receptor Promotes Sleep in the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
We sought to characterize delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses elicited by topical hapten DPCP in normal human skin
Molecular characterization of human skin response to diphencyprone at peak and resolution phases: therapeutic insights.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
In the early stages of wound healing, keratinocytes become activated and release inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-1 and interleukin-8 that are linked to innate immune responses and neutrophil recruitment. It is unclear, however, whether keratinocytes release molecules linked to adaptive immune responses, e.g. CCL20, in their early state of activation without signals from infiltrating T cells. This study aims to isolate the immediate alterations in protective and inflammatory gene expression that occur in epidermal keratinocytes, with a particular focus on molecules associated with cell-mediated immunity. We used dispase-separated epidermis, followed by intercellular disassociation by trypsinization, as a model for epidermal injury. We obtained a pure population of keratinocytes using flow cytometry. As a control for uninjured epidermis, we performed laser capture microdissection on normal human skin. Sorted keratinocytes had an early burst of upregulated gene expression, which included CCL20, IL-15, IL-23A, IFN-, and several antimicrobial peptides. Our results provide insight into the potential role of keratinocytes as contributors to cell-mediated inflammation, and expand knowledge about gene modulation that occurs during early wound healing. Our findings may be relevant to cutaneous diseases such as psoriasis, where micro-injury can trigger the formation of psoriatic plaques at the site of trauma.
Human keratinocytes' response to injury upregulates CCL20 and other genes linking innate and adaptive immunity.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
In this study, we sought to determine how IL-17 and TNF influence normal human melanocytes, either alone, or with both cytokines together. We reveal a dichotomous effect of IL-17 and TNF, which not only elicit essential mitogenic cytokines but also suppress melanogenesis by down-regulating genes of melanogenesis pathway
IL-17 and TNF synergistically modulate cytokine expression while suppressing melanogenesis: potential relevance to psoriasis.
Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples
The Arabidopsis thaliana NAC domain transcription factor, VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7), acts as a key regulator of xylem vessel differentiation. In order to identify direct target genes of VND7, we performed global transcriptome analysis using Arabidopsis transgenic lines in which VND7 activity could be induced post-translationally. This analysis identified 63 putative direct target genes of VND7, which encode a broad range of proteins, such as transcription factors, IRREGULAR XYLEM proteins and proteolytic enzymes, known to be closely associated with xylem vessel formation. Recombinant VND7 protein binds to several promoter sequences present in candidate direct target genes: specifically, in the promoter of XYLEM CYSTEINE PEPTIDASE1, two distinct regions were demonstrated to be responsible for VND7 binding. We also found that expression of VND7 restores secondary cell wall formation in the fiber cells of inflorescence stems of nst1nst3 double mutants, as well as expression of NAC SECONDARY WALL THICKENING PROMOTING FACTOR3 (NST3, however, the vessel-type secondary wall deposition was observed only as a result of VND7 expression. These findings indicated that VND7 upregulates, directly and/or indirectly, many genes involved in a wide range of processes in xylem vessel differentiation, and that its target genes are partially different from those of NSTs.
VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 directly regulates the expression of a broad range of genes for xylem vessel formation.
Age, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Background; Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in humans. The pathogenesis of BCC is associated with the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway. Vismodegib, a smoothened inhibitor, that targets this pathway is now in clinical use for advanced BCC patients, but its efficacy is limited. Therefore, new therapeutic options for this cancer are required. Methods; We studied gene expression profiling of BCC tumour tissue coupled with laser capture microdissection to identify tumor specific receptor tyrosine kinase expression that can be targeted by small molecule inhibitors. The expression of selected molecules was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry. The action of kinase inhibitors was examined on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Results; We found a >250 fold change increase (false discovery rate <10-4) of the oncogene, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) as well as its ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine in BCC compared to microdissected normal epidermis. qRT-PCR confirmed increased expression of ALK (p<0.05). Stronger staining of phosphorylated ALK in BCC tumour nests than normal skin was observed by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, Crizotinib, an FDA-approved ALK inhibitor, reduced keratinocyte proliferation in culture, whereas a c-Met, another receptor tyrosine kinase, inhibitor did not. Crizotinib significantly reduced the expression of GLI1 and CCND2 mRNA by approximately 60% and 20%, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions; Our data suggest that ALK may increase GLI1 expression in parallel with the conventional SHH-pathway and promotes keratinocyte proliferation. Furthermore, an ALK inhibitor alone or in combination with targeting SHH-pathway molecules may be a potential treatment for BCC patients.
Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase as a potential therapeutic target in Basal Cell Carcinoma.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples