A significant fraction of breast cancers exhibit de novo or acquired resistance to estrogen deprivation. To model resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, long-term estrogen-deprived (LTED) derivatives of MCF-7 and HCC-1428 cells were generated through culture for 3 and 7 months under hormone-depleted conditions, respectively. These LTED cells showed sensitivity to the ER downregulator fulvestrant under hormone-depleted conditions, suggesting continued dependence upon ER signaling for hormone-independent growth. To evaluate the role of ER in hormone-independent growth, LTED cells were treated +/- 1 uM fulvestrant x 48 h before RNA was harvested for gene expression analysis.
ERα-dependent E2F transcription can mediate resistance to estrogen deprivation in human breast cancer.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
RNA from circulating blood reticulocytes was utilized to provide a robust description of genes transcribed at the final stages of erythroblast maturation. After depletion of leukocytes and platelets, Affymetrix HG-U133Plus 2.0 arrays were hybridized with probe from total RNA isolated from blood sampled from 6 umbilical cords and 6 healthy adult humans.
Let-7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Multiple sclerosis involves an aberrant autoimmune response and progressive failure of remyelination in the central nervous system. Prevention of neural degeneration and subsequent disability requires remyelination through the generation of new oligodendrocytes, but current treatments exclusively target the immune system. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are stem cells in the central nervous system and the principal source of myelinating oligodendrocytes. These cells are abundant in demyelinated regions of patients with multiple sclerosis, yet fail to differentiate, thereby representing a cellular target for pharmacological intervention. To discover therapeutic compounds for enhancing myelination from endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, we screened a library of bioactive small molecules on mouse pluripotent epiblast stem-cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we show seven drugs function at nanomolar doses selectively to enhance the generation of mature oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells in vitro. Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, are effective in promoting precocious myelination in organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, and in vivo in early postnatal mouse pups. Systemic delivery of each of the two drugs significantly increases the number of new oligodendrocytes and enhances remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced mouse model of focal demyelination. Administering each of the two drugs at the peak of disease in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis results in striking reversal of disease severity. Immune response assays show that miconazole functions directly as a remyelinating drug with no effect on the immune system, whereas clobetasol is a potent immunosuppressant as well as a remyelinating agent. Mechanistic studies show that miconazole and clobetasol function in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase and glucocorticoid receptor signalling, respectively. Furthermore, both drugs enhance the generation of human oligodendrocytes from human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in vitro. Collectively, our results provide a rationale for testing miconazole and clobetasol, or structurally modified derivatives, to enhance remyelination in patients. Overall design: RNA sequencing of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells treated with vehicle, miconazole or clobetasol for 0, 2, 6, or 12 hours. Cells were plated 1.5 hours prior to addition of drug.
Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo.
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Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) promotes escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Hyperactivation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase promotes escape from hormone dependence in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
A significant fraction of breast cancers exhibit de novo or acquired resistance to estrogen deprivation.
A kinome-wide screen identifies the insulin/IGF-I receptor pathway as a mechanism of escape from hormone dependence in breast cancer.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) was performed on spinal cord dissections pooled from 3-4 mice 21 days post birth that were positive for the eGFP-L10A fusion ribosomal marker protein under the expression of either the Chat promoter (Tg(Chat-EGFP/Rpl10a)DW167Htz) or the Snap25 promoter (Tg(Snap25-EGFP/Rpl10a)JD362Jdd). RNA-sequencing was performed on both TRAP and pre-immunoprecipitation (PreIP) control RNA samples. Overall design: Three replicates of PreIP and TRAP for two transgenic lines.
MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Marker of Motor Neuron Disease in ALS Models.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
In this study we predict functionally important long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) with a role in core essential processes in human. One of the candidate lincRNA, AC093323.3, was experimentally verified to affect cell viability. We performed RNASeq on knockdown of AC093323.3 to further investigate the functional role of this lincRNA. Overall design: RNA profiles of NCI-H460 lung cancer cells after treatment with scrambled siRNAs and AC093323.3-siRNA.
In silico prediction of housekeeping long intergenic non-coding RNAs reveals HKlincR1 as an essential player in lung cancer cell survival.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
There is a good deal of indirect evidence that improved insulin sensitivity may contribute to improved lifespan of mice in which aging has been slowed by mutations, drugs, or dietary means, even in stocks of mice that do not show signs of late-life diabetes. Peripheral responses to insulin can be augmented by over-expression of Syntaxin 4 (Syn4), a membrane SNARE protein. We show here that Syn4 transgenic (Tg) mice live approximately 33% longer than controls, and show increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, even at ages where controls show age-related insulin resistance. Hence, presumably Syn4 Tg mice spend more hours of each day under normoglycemic conditions, which may slow multiple aspects of aging and thereby extend lifespan, even in non-diabetic mice.
Syntaxin 4 Overexpression Ameliorates Effects of Aging and High-Fat Diet on Glucose Control and Extends Lifespan.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the six proteins that make up the REF-1 family are HES homologs that act in both Notch dependent and Notch-independent pathways to regulate embryonic events. To further our understanding of how the REF-1 family works to coordinate post-embryonic cellular events, we performed transcriptome analysis of HLH-25 and HLH-29 mutant strains.
Genome-wide microarrray analysis reveals roles for the REF-1 family member HLH-29 in ferritin synthesis and peroxide stress response.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples