Natural grape-juice fermentations involve the sequential development of different yeast species which strongly influence the chemical and sensorial traits of the final product. In the present study,we aimed to examine the transcriptomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the presence of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii wine fermentation.
Genomic expression program of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along a mixed-culture wine fermentation with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii.
Treatment, TimeView Samples
Estrogen plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Physiological effects of estrogen are mediated through estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), which are both expressed in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. However, the molecular pathways mediating estrogen effects in blood vessels are not well defined. We have performed gene expression profiling in the mouse aorta to identify comprehensive gene sets the expression of which is regulated by long-term (1 wk) estrogen treatment. The ER subtype dependence of the alterations in gene expression was characterized by parallel gene expression profiling experiments in ERalpha-deficient [ERalpha knockout (ERalphaKO)] and ERbeta-deficient (ERbetaKO) mice.
Estrogen receptors alpha and beta mediate distinct pathways of vascular gene expression, including genes involved in mitochondrial electron transport and generation of reactive oxygen species.
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The steroid hormone aldosterone plays a role in vascular function and disease. Aldosterone activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. MR have been found to be expressed in vascular cells and vessels.
Placental growth factor mediates aldosterone-dependent vascular injury in mice.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
The supply of red blood cells (RBCs) is not sufficient in many developing countries or in developed countries for patients who need chronic transfusion from best-matched donors. Ex vivo expansion and maturation of human erythroid precursor cells (erythroblasts) could represent a potential solution. Proliferating erythroblasts can be expanded from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) ex vivo for 10^6-10^7 fold (in ~50 days) before undergoing senescence. Here, we report that ectopic expression of three to four genetic factors that have been used for iPS cell derivation enables CB-derived erythroblasts to undergo extended ex vivo expansion (10^51 fold in ~9 months) in a defined suspension culture condition without change of cell identity or function. These vastly expanding erythroblasts maintain homogeneously immature erythroblast phenotypes, a normal diploid karyotype and dependence on specific combination of cytokines and hormone for survival and proliferation throughout the continuous expansion period. When switched to a culture condition for terminal maturation, these immortalized erythroblasts gradually exit cell cycle, decrease cell size, accumulate hemoglobin, condense nuclei and eventually give rise to enucleated hemoglobin-containing erythrocytes. Our result may ultimately lead to the development of unlimited sources of cultured RBCs for optimally-matched or personalized transfusion medicine.
Extensive ex vivo expansion of functional human erythroid precursors established from umbilical cord blood cells by defined factors.
Specimen partView Samples
Stressors may have negative or positive effects in dependence of the dose (hormesis). We studied this phenomenon in Caenorhabditis elegans by applying weak or severe abiotic (cadmium, CdCl2) and/or biotic stress (different bacterial diets) during cultivation/breeding of the worms, and determining developmental speed or survival rates and performing transcriptome profiling and RT-qPCR analyses to explore the genetic basis of the detected phenotypic differences. This study showed that a bacterial diet resulting in higher levels of energy resources in the worms (E. coli OP50 feeding) or weak abiotic and biotic stress especially promote the resistance against severe abiotic or biotic stress and the age-specific survival rate of WT. Overall design: Five experimental conditions; mostly three replicates per experimental condition; four contrasts between test and control conditions functionally analyzed.
Bacterial diet and weak cadmium stress affect the survivability of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> and its resistance to severe stress.
Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
HeLa cells were treated with siRNA directed against Luciferase or RENT1 in duplicate (as described in Mendell et al., Science, 2002; PubMed ID:12228722). Transcripts that are differentially expressed between the two experimental conditions are putatively regulated by RENT1.
Nonsense surveillance regulates expression of diverse classes of mammalian transcripts and mutes genomic noise.
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Expression profiling using a defined set of iron regulated genes identifies co-regulation of genes and pathways related to inflammatory cytokines
Iron, inflammation, and early death in adults with sickle cell disease.
Specimen part, DiseaseView Samples
We have tested the effect of iron on the gene expression profile in human leukemia cells with properties of erythroid differentiation.
Heme-bound iron activates placenta growth factor in erythroid cells via erythroid Krüppel-like factor.
Specimen partView Samples
Kruppel-like transcription factor 5 (Klf5) is expressed during late embryogenesis in the forming murine bladder urothelium. Targeted disruption of the Klf5flox alleles by the ShhGfpCre transgene resulted in failure of the bladder urothelium to mature accompanied by hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and vesicoureteric reflux in all E18.5 fetuses. The bladder urothelium did not stratify nor did it express terminal differentiation markers characteristic of basal, intermediate, and umbrella cells including keratins 20, 14, and 5, and uroplakins. At E18.5, an ectopic alpha smooth muscle actin positive layer of cells was identified subjacent to the undifferentiated Klf5-deficient urothelium. The effects of Klf5 deficiency were unique to the urothelium since maturation of the epithelium comprising the bladder neck and urethra were unaffected by the lack of KLF5. mRNA microarray analysis of whole E14.5 control and Klf5 deficient bladders identified Ppar-gamma and Grhl3 as putative downstream intermediary transcription factors that regulate urothelial maturation. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that KLF5 regulated expression of the mGrhl3 promoter. These observations show that alterations in maturation of the bladder urothelium alone are sufficient to induce bladder dysfunction leading to prenatal hydronephrosis.
Kruppel-like factor 5 is required for formation and differentiation of the bladder urothelium.
Specimen partView Samples
Hundreds of immune cell types work in coordination to maintain tissue homeostasis. Upon infection, dramatic changes occur with the localization, migration and proliferation of the immune cells to first alert the body of the danger, confine it to limit spreading, and finally extinguish the threat and bring the tissue back to homeostasis. Since current technologies can follow the dynamics of only a limited number of cell types, we have yet to grasp the full complexity of global in vivo cell dynamics in normal developmental processes and disease. Here we devise a computational method, digital cell quantification (DCQ), which combines genomewide gene expression data with an immune cell compendium to infer in vivo dynamical changes in the quantities of 213 immune cell subpopulations. DCQ was applied to study global immune cell dynamics in mice lungs at ten time points during a 7-day time course of flu infection. We find dramatic changes in quantities of 70 immune cell types, including various innate, adaptive and progenitor immune cells. We focus on the previously unreported dynamics of four immune dendritic cell subtypes, and suggest a specific role for CD103+CD11b- cDCs in early stages of disease and CD8+ pDC in late stages of flu infection. Overall design: To study pathogenesis of Influenza infection, C57BL/6 mice (5 weeks) were infected intranasally with 4x103 PFU of influenza PR8 virus. We measured using RNA-Seq global gene expression in lung tissue at ten time points during a 7-day time course of infection, two infected individuals in each time point and four un-infected individuals as control. The lung organ was removed and transferred immediately into RNA Latter solution (Invitrogen).
Digital cell quantification identifies global immune cell dynamics during influenza infection.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, Subject, TimeView Samples