Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging pathogen causing pulmonary infections in those with inflammatory lung disorders, such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF), and is associated with the highest fatality rate among rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). Phenotypically, MAB manifests as either a Smooth (MAB-S) or a Rough (MAB-R) morphotype, which differ in their levels of cell wall glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) and in their pathogenicity in vivo. As one of the primary immune cells encountered by MAB, we sought to examine the early transcriptional events within macrophages, following infection with both MAB-S or MAB-R. We sampled the small RNA (sRNA) transcriptome of THP-1-derived macrophages infected with both MAB-R and MAB-S at 1, 4 and 24 hours post-infection (hpi) using RNA-seq. MAB-S elicited a more robust transcriptional response at the miRNA level, reflecting higher cytokine levels in culture supernatants. However, and a direct comparison identified no differentially expressed miRNAs between MAB-R- and MAB-S-infected cells. Most of the induced miRNAs have previously been associated with mycobacterial infection and overall miRNA expression patterns were similarly highly correlated between the morphotypes. Overall design: THP-1-derived macrophages were infected in parallel with the MAB-R and MAB-S morphotypes. Poly-A selected RNAs were purified and sequenced at 1, 4 and 24 hours post-infection, and compared with uninfected controls.
High-throughput transcriptomics reveals common and strain-specific responses of human macrophages to infection with Mycobacterium abscessus Smooth and Rough variants.
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The genetic changes underlying metastatic melanoma need to be deciphered to develop new and effective therapeutics. Previously, genome-wide microarray analyses of human melanoma identified two reciprocal gene expression programs, that included expression of mRNAs regulated by either transforming growth factor, beta 1 (TGFB1) pathways or microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)/SRY-box containing gene 10 (SOX10) pathways. We extend this knowledge to include gene expression analyses of 5 additional human melanoma lines, and show that these lines also fall into either TGFB1 or MITF/SOX10 gene expression groups.
Distinct microRNA expression signatures are associated with melanoma subtypes and are regulated by HIF1A.
Cell lineView Samples
In vitro studies identified TBC1D4 as an regulator of renal ion and water transporting proteins. However, TBC1D4-deficient mice did not show a defective renal salt and water homeostasis.
Rab-GAP TBC1D4 (AS160) is dispensable for the renal control of sodium and water homeostasis but regulates GLUT4 in mouse kidney.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
These datasets describe a melanocyte specific, HIF1A-Dependent / Hypoxia-Responsive gene expression signature defined by the regulation of genes critical to metabolism, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, vascularization and cellular invasivness. These genes provide lineage specific targets for refinement of diagnostic markers associated with primary melanoma tumor metastatic potential, and also provides novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies targeting metastatic disease progression.
Hypoxia-induced HIF1α targets in melanocytes reveal a molecular profile associated with poor melanoma prognosis.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The estrous cycles of Limousin heifers (n = 30) were synchronized by insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device (1.94 g progesterone; Pfizer Animal Health) placed into the vagina for 8 days. A 0.5 mg intramuscular injection of a prostaglandin F2a (PG) analogue (PG, Estrumate, Shering-Plough Animal Health, Hertfordshire, UK) was administered 1 day before CIDR removal. Heifers were checked for standing estrus and only those exhibiting estrus (Day 0) were used. All animals were expected to come in heat between 48 and 72 hours after CIDR removal. Cervical tissues were collected at slaughter from heifers 12h after CIDR removal (Group 1: CIDR + 12 h, n = 6), 24h after CIDR removal (Group 2: CIDR + 24 h, n = 6), at the onset of estrus (Group 3: Estrus, n = 4), 12 h after the onset of estrus (Group 4: estrus + 12 h, n = 5), 48 h after the onset of estrus (Group 5: Estrus+48h, n = 4) and on day 7 after the onset of estrus (Group 6: Luteal phase, n = 5). Overall design: Cervical tissue from 30 animals taken at 6 timepoints in the peri-oestrus period. +12hrs post CIDR, Onset of Oestrus,+12hrs post Oestrus, +48hrs post Oestrus, Luteal phase
Molecular aspects of mucin biosynthesis and mucus formation in the bovine cervix during the periestrous period.
Subject, TimeView Samples
IL-36 cytokines have recently emerged as mediators of inflammation in autoimmune conditions including psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). This study used RNA-seq to profile the transcriptome of primary epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) treated with IL-1B, IL-36A, IL-36B or IL-36G. We identified some early IL-1B-specific responses (8 hours post-treatment), but nearly all late IL-1B responses were replicated by IL-36 cytokines (24 hours post-treatment). Type I and II interferon genes exhibited time-dependent response patterns, with early induction (8 hours) followed by no response or repression (24 hours). Altogether, we identified 225 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with shared responses to all 4 cytokines at both time points (8 + 24 hours). These involved up-regulation of ligands (IL1A, IL1B, IL36G) and activating proteases (CTSS), but also up-regulation of inhibitors such as IL1RN and IL36RN. Shared IL-1B/IL-36 DEGs overlapped significantly with genes altered in PsV and GPP skin lesions, as well as genes near GWAS loci linked to autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (e.g., PsV, psoriatic arthritis, IBD, primary biliary cholangitis). Inactivation of MyD88 adapter protein using CRISPR/Cas9 completely abolished expression responses of such DEGs to IL-1B and IL-36G stimulation. These results provide a global view of IL-1B and IL-36 expression responses in epidermal KCs with fine-scale characterization of time-dependent and cytokine-specific response patterns. Our findings support an important role for IL-1B and IL-36 in autoimmune or autoinflammatory conditions and show that MyD88 adaptor protein mediates shared IL-1B/IL-36 responses. Overall design: Cultures were treated with truncated recombinant human IL-1B, IL-36A, IL-36B or IL-36G (10 ng/ml for IL-1B; 2000 ng/ml for IL-36 cytokines). Three cell lines were used (lines A, B and C) with samples processed in 4 batches. Samples within the same batch are comparable. Experiments were performed with 8 and 24 hours of cytokine treatment (n = 2-3 per time point).
RNA-Seq Analysis of IL-1B and IL-36 Responses in Epidermal Keratinocytes Identifies a Shared MyD88-Dependent Gene Signature.
Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, Subject, TimeView Samples
Cellular mechanisms that contribute to low estradiol concentrations produced by the preovulatory ovarian follicle in cattle with a compromised metabolic status (such as lactatino) are largely unknown. To gain insight into the main metabolic mechanisms affecting preovulatory follicle function RNAseq profiling was conducted on non-lactating Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=16) and lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (n=17) at three stages of preovulatory follicle development: A) newly selected dominant follicle in the luteal phase (Selection); B) follicular phase before the LH surge (Differentiation) and C) pre-ovulatory phase after the LH surge (Luteinization). Based on a combination of RNA sequencing, ingenuity pathway analysis and Q-RT-PCR validation several important molecular markers involved in steroid biosynthesis, such as the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) within developing dominant follicles, were identified to be affected (downregulated) by the catabolic state. We propose that the adverse metabolic environment caused by lactation decreases preovulatory follicle function by affecting cholesterol transport into the mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis. Overall design: Granulosa and Theca samples from the dominant follicle were taken from cows and heifers at stages: selection, differentiation and luteinization.
Effect of the metabolic environment at key stages of follicle development in cattle: focus on steroid biosynthesis.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
We performed ChIP-Seq analysis of SOX10, histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in melanocytes to profile the genomic binding sites of SOX10 and the chromatin landscape. In parallel, we generated Sox10 haploinsufficient cell lines using gene knockout approaches and conducted microarray gene expression analysis to identify functional gene targets of SOX10 transcriptional regulation in melanocytes. We demonstrate that SOX10 predominantly engages open chromatin, binds to melanocyte enhancer elements and plays a central role in transcriptional activation and repression of functionally distinct classes of genes. Furthermore, we identified cis-regulatory sequence motifs of putative co-regulatory transcription factors that define SOX10-activated and SOX10-repressed target genes. Our results uncover novel mechanisms and roles of SOX10 in global transcriptional regulation of diverse regulatory pathways in the melanocyte lineage.
Genomic analysis reveals distinct mechanisms and functional classes of SOX10-regulated genes in melanocytes.
Specimen partView Samples