Mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) occur in a variety of tumor types, resulting in production of the proposed oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). How mutant IDH and 2-HG alter signaling pathways to promote cancer, though, remains unclear. Additionally, there exist relatively few cell lines with IDH mutations. To examine the effect of endogenous IDH mutations and 2-HG, we created a panel of isogenic epithelial cell lines with either wild-type IDH1/2 or clinically relevant IDH1/2 mutations. Differences were noted in the ability of IDH mutations to cause robust 2-HG accumulation. IDH1/2 mutants that produce high levels of 2-HG cause an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype, characterized by changes in EMT-related gene expression and cellular morphology. 2-HG is sufficient to recapitulate aspects of this phenotype in the absence of an IDH mutation. In the cells types examined, mutant IDH-induced EMT is dependent on upregulation of the transcription factor ZEB1 and downregulation of the mir-200 family of microRNAs. Furthermore, sustained knockdown of IDH1 in IDH1 R132H mutant cells is sufficient to reverse many characteristics of EMT, demonstrating that continued expression of mutant IDH is required to maintain this phenotype. These results suggest mutant IDH proteins can reversibly deregulate discrete signaling pathways that contribute to tumorigenesis
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations promote a reversible ZEB1/microRNA (miR)-200-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
Cell lineView Samples
Centrosome defects are a common feature of many cancers. Surprisingly, flies can proceed through the majority of development without centrosomes or with amplified centrosomes in most of their cells. It is unclear whether this is because centrosome defects do not cause many problems in Drosophila cells, or because they can adapt to cope with any problems that arise. Indeed, centrosome loss and centrosome amplification predispose fly brain cells to form tumours. Here we assess how centrosome loss or centrosome amplification perturbs cell physiology by profiling the global transcriptome of Drosophila larval brains and imaginal discs that either lack centrosomes or have too many centrosomes.
Centrosome loss or amplification does not dramatically perturb global gene expression in Drosophila.
Specimen partView Samples
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) are aggressive bone and soft tissue tumors of unknown cellular origin. Most ESFT express EWS-FLI1, a chimeric protein which functions as a growth-promoting oncogene in ESFT but is toxic to most normal cells. A major difficulty in understanding EWS-FLI1 function has been the lack of an adequate model in which to study EWS-FLI1-induced transformation. Although the cell of origin of ESFT remains elusive, both mesenchymal (MSC) and neural crest (NCSC) have been implicated. We recently developed the tools to generate NCSC from human embryonic stem cells (hNCSC). In the current study we used this model to test the hypothesis that neural crest-derived stem cells are the cells of origin of ESFT and to evaluate the consequences of EWS-FLI1 expression on human neural crest biology.
Modeling initiation of Ewing sarcoma in human neural crest cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Transcript profiling analysis of csn3-1, csn4-1 and csn5 (csn5a-2 csn5b) light grown and dark grown mutant seedlings compared to light grown and dark grown wild type using Arabidopsis ATH1 GeneChip array
The Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome is essential for G2 phase progression and genomic stability.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
To elucidate the gene expression footprint of antigenically challenged T-cells which had been treated with anti-LFA-1, CTLA4Ig, anti-CD40-ligand antibodies, we performed microarray gene expression analysis comparing the expression profile of costimulatory blockade treated and untreated responder T-cells.
Short-term immunosuppression promotes engraftment of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Changes in Treg function are difficult to quantify due to the lack of Treg-exclusive markers in humans and the complexity of functional experiments. We sorted naive and memory human Tregs and conventional T cells, and identified genes that identify human Tregs regardless of their state of activation. We developed this Treg signature using Affymetrix human genome U133A 2.0 microarrays.
A Regulatory T-Cell Gene Signature Is a Specific and Sensitive Biomarker to Identify Children With New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes.
Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Glucosamine proved to be a potent, broad-spectrum inhibitor of IL-1beta. Of the 2,813 genes whose transcription was altered by IL-1beta stimulation (p<0.0001), glucosamine significantly blocked the response in 2,055 (~73%). Glucosamine fully protected the chondrocytes from IL-1-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors as well as proteins involved in PGE2 and NO synthesis. It also blocked the IL-1-induced expression of matrix specific proteases such as MMPs -3,-9,-10,-12 and ADAMTS-1.
Exogenous glucosamine globally protects chondrocytes from the arthritogenic effects of IL-1beta.
We have shown that activin promoted skin tumorigenesis in mice induced by the human papilloma virus 8 oncogenes. Activin attracted blood monocytes to the skin as revealed by depletion of CCR2-positive monocytes. To determine if activin also altered the gene expression profile of these cells, we performed RNA-Sequencing of macrophages FACS-sorted from the pre-cancerous ear skin. We have found that activin induces a pro-migratiory, pro-angiogenic and pro-tumorigenic genes in skin macrophages in vivo. This largely contributes to the pro-tumorigenic function of activin, since macrophage depletion delayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in HPV8-transgenic mice by reducing keratinocyte proliferation and angiogenesis. Overall design: F4/80+CD11b+CD45+ cells were FACS-sorted from the pre-cancerous ear skin of wt/wt, HPV8/wt, wt/Act and HPV8/Act mice and their expression profile was analysed by RNA-Sequencing. Experiment was performed in triplicates, for each replicate ear skin of 3-6 mice of corresponding genotype was pooled.
Activin promotes skin carcinogenesis by attraction and reprogramming of macrophages.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Because of the extensive data in mice supporting the concept that ST2+ Tregs might have desirable therapeutic properties, including tissue repair function, high suppressive capacity, and enhanced stability, we engineered human blood Tregs to constitutively express ST2 (IL-33R). Here we used RNA sequencing to explore the effects of short-term culture with IL-33 on human ST2-transduced Tregs. Overall design: Human naive Tregs flow-sorted from 4 independent donors were lentivirally transduced with ST2, expanded for 13 days, then stimulated with IL-2 and TCR (16 h) or IL-2, TCR, and IL-33 (16 h).
Innate Control of Tissue-Reparative Human Regulatory T Cells.
Sex, Specimen part, SubjectView Samples