The involvement of osteocytes in multiple myeloma (MM)-induced osteoclast formation and the occurrence of bone lesions are still unknown. Osteocytes regulate bone remodeling at least in part through the cell death and apoptosis triggering osteoclast recruitment and formation. In this study, firstly we shown that MM cells increased osteocyte death and affect their transcriptional profile evaluated by microarray analysis up-regulating osteoclastogenic cytokines as interleukin (IL)-11. Consistently we show that the conditioned media of human pre-osteocytes co-cultured with MM cells significantly increased osteoclastogenesis. To translate into a clinical perspective such in vitro evidences, we then performed histological analysis on bone biopsies obtained from MM patients, MGUS and healthy controls. We found a significant reduction in the number of viable osteocytes in MM patients as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation between the number of viable osteocytes and that of osteoclasts was also demonstrated. Moreover, as regards the skeletal involvement, we found that MM patients with bone lesions have a significant lower number of viable osteocyte than those without. Overall, our data suggest a role of osteocytic cell death in MM-induced osteoclast formation in vitro and MM bone disease in vivo in MM patients.
Increased osteocyte death in multiple myeloma patients: role in myeloma-induced osteoclast formation.
Specimen part, Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Analysis of human glioblastoma multiforme tumors revealed genes that are upregulated in tumors expressing EGFRvIII compared to those expressing wild-type EGFR
Sprouty2 Drives Drug Resistance and Proliferation in Glioblastoma.
Specimen partView Samples
A subanalysis of the GIMEMA-MMY-3006 trial was performed to characterize treatment-emergent peripheral neuropathy (PN) in patients randomized to thalidomide-dexamethasone (TD) or bortezomib-TD (VTD) before and after double autologous transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). 236 patients randomized to VTD and 238 to TD were stratified according to the emergence of grade 2 PN. Gene expression profiles (GEP) of CD138+ plasma cells were analyzed from 122 VTD-treated patients. The incidence of grade 2 PN was 35% in the VTD arm and 10% in the TD arm (p<0.001). PN resolved in 88% and 95% of patients in VTD and TD groups, respectively. Rates of complete/near complete response, progression-free and overall survival were not adversely affected by emergence of grade 2 PN. Baseline characteristics were not risk factors for PN, while GEP analysis revealed the deregulated expression of genes implicated in cytoskeleton rearrangement, neurogenesis and axonal guidance. In conclusion, in comparison with TD, incorporation of VTD into ASCT was associated with a higher incidence of PN which, however, was reversible in most of the patients and did not adversely affect their outcomes nor their ability to subsequently receive ASCT. GEP analysis suggests an interaction between myeloma genetic profiles and development of VTD-induced PN.
Bortezomib- and thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma: clinical and molecular analyses of a phase 3 study.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stageView Samples
In multiple myeloma (MM), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) is overexpressed in the MM cells of the hypoxic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Herein, we explored in MM cells the in vitro and in vivo effects of persistent HIF-1 inhibition by expression of a lentivirus shRNA pool on proliferation, survival and transcriptional and pro-angiogenic profiles. Among the significantly modulated genes (326 and 361 genes in hypoxic and normoxic condition, respectively), we found that HIF-1 inhibition in the human myeloma cell line JJN3 downregulates the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF, IL8, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, and MMP9. Interestingly, several pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines were also inhibited, such as IL-7 and CCL3/MIP-1. The effect of HIF-1 inhibition was assessed in vivo in NOD/SCID mice both in subcutaneous and intratibial models, indicating in either case a dramatic reduction of weight and volume of the tumor burden as a consequence of HIF-1 knockdown. Moreover, a significant reduction of the number of vessels per field and VEGF immunostaining were observed. Finally, in the intra-tibial experiments, HIF-1 inhibition significantly blocks JJN3-induced bone destruction. Overall, our data indicate that HIF-1 suppression in MM cells significantly blocks MM-induced angiogenesis and reduces both tumor burden and bone destruction in vivo, strongly indicating HIF-1 as an emerging therapeutic target in MM.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α suppression in myeloma cells blocks tumoral growth in vivo inhibiting angiogenesis and bone destruction.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
The anthracycline, doxorubicin (Dox), is widely used in oncology, but it may it may cause a cardiomyopathy which has dismal prognosis and cannot be effectively prevented. The secretome of multipotent human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS) has previously been demonstrated to reduce ischemic cardiac damage. Here, it is shown that the hAFS conditioned medium (hAFS-CM) antagonizes senescence and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and cardiac progenitor cells, two major features of Dox cardiotoxicity. Mechanistic studies with primary mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes reveal that hAFS-CM inhibition of Dox-elicited senescence and apoptosis is paralleled by decreased DNA damage and is associated with nuclear translocation of NF-kB and upregulation of a set of genes controlled by NF-kB, namely Il6 and Cxcl1, which promote cardiomyocyte survival, and Cyp1b1 and Abcb1, which encode for proteins involved in Dox metabolism and efflux, respectively. The PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, upstream of NF-kB, is potently activated by the hAFS-CM and pre-treatment with a PI3K inhibitor abrogates NF-kB accumulation into the nucleus, modulation of its target genes, and prevention of Dox-initiated senescence and apoptosis in response to the hAFS-CM. This work may lay the ground for the development of a stem cell-based paracrine therapy of chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity.
The human amniotic fluid stem cell secretome effectively counteracts doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Specimen partView Samples
Gene expression profile of in vitro differentiated control and CD33 KO CD34+ cells (with 70-85% CD33 KO) were analyzed by RNA-seq to exclude any major impact of CD33 loss on downstream gene expression Overall design: Primary CD34+ cells were treated with CRISPR/Cas9 to disrupt the CD33 gene and grown in culture for 5-7 days prior to analysis; mRNA profile was compared to control cells from the same donor that were also treated with Cas9 and a control gRNA; 5 different donors were evaluated (CD33 KO/control for each = total 10 samples)
Genetic Inactivation of CD33 in Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Enable CAR T Cell Immunotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
The clinical efficacy of EGFR kinase inhibitors is limited by the development of drug resistance. The irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitor WZ4002 is effective against the most common mechanism of drug resistance mediated by the EGFR T790M mutation. Here we show that in multiple complementary models harboring EGFR T790M, resistance to WZ4002 develops through aberrant activation of ERK signaling caused by either an amplification of MAPK1 or by downregulation of negative regulators of ERK signaling. Inhibition of MEK or ERK restores sensitivity to WZ4002, and the combination of WZ4002 and a MEK inhibitor prevents the emergence of drug resistance. The WZ4002 resistant MAPK1 amplified cells also demonstrate an increase both in EGFR internalization and a decrease in sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy compared to the parental counterparts. Our findings provide insights into mechanisms of drug resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors and highlight rational combination therapies that should be evaluated in clinical trials.
Reactivation of ERK signaling causes resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors.
Cell lineView Samples
Burkitt lymphoma is the commonest cancer in children in Africa. We compared the gene expression profiles of African Burkitt lymphoma patients with those of cases presented in Western countries in both immunocompetent (sporadic Burkitt lymphoma) and HIV-infected patients (immunodeficiency associated Burkitt lymphoma).
Gene expression analysis uncovers similarity and differences among Burkitt lymphoma subtypes.
Specimen partView Samples