RNAseq data for Col-0. cob-6, sfr6-3 and cob-6sfr6-3 Overall design: 7 days old seedlings grown in 24h light with 0
Identification of MEDIATOR16 as the Arabidopsis COBRA suppressor MONGOOSE1.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The ability to sequence genomes has far outstripped approaches for deciphering the information they encode. Here we present a suite of techniques, based on ribosome profiling (the deep-sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments), to provide genome-wide maps of protein synthesis as well as a pulse-chase strategy for determining rates of translation elongation. We exploit the propensity of harringtonine to cause ribosomes to accumulate at sites of translation initiation together with a machine learning algorithm to define protein products systematically. Analysis of translation in mouse embryonic stem cells reveals thousands of strong pause sites and novel translation products. These include amino-terminal extensions and truncations and upstream open reading frames with regulatory potential, initiated at both AUG and non-AUG codons, whose translation changes after differentiation. We also define a new class of short, polycistronic ribosome-associated coding RNAs (sprcRNAs) that encode small proteins. Our studies reveal an unanticipated complexity to mammalian proteomes. Overall design: Examination of translation in mouse embryonic stem cells and during differentiation into embryoid bodies
Ribosome profiling provides evidence that large noncoding RNAs do not encode proteins.
Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable for anti-influenza therapy. Here we describe a new approach to identify such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that this would most probably ensure addressing a cellular target and, if successful, the compound would have a well known pharmacological profile. In addition, we reasoned that a screening using a GFP-based recombinant replicon system would address virus trancription/replication and/or gene expression, and hence address a stage in virus infection more useful for inhibition. By using such strategy we identified Montelukast as an inhibitor of virus gene expression, which reduced virus multiplication in virus-infected cells but did not alter virus RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated or not with Montelukast, we identified the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as the pathway responsible for Montelukast action. Accordingly, PERK phosphorylation was inhibited in infected cells but stimulated in Montelukast-treated cells. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection. Overall design: Comparison of gene expression measured by deep sequencing (single-ends, 50nt, RNA-seq) of "Infected", "Not infected", "Infected+Montelukast" and "Not infect+Montelukast" in human A549 cells. Infected means "Infected with influenza virus".
Chemical Genomics Identifies the PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Stress Response as a Cellular Target for Influenza Virus Inhibition.
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Antigen uptake, processing and presentation by dendritic cells are regulated by complex intra- and inter-cellular signalling events. Typical vaccine adjuvants lead to the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines which relate to immune induction.
Nanoemulsion mucosal adjuvant uniquely activates cytokine production by nasal ciliated epithelium and induces dendritic cell trafficking.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, TimeView Samples
Human abdominal adipose tissue was obtained with informed consent from a 33-year old Caucasian female (BMI = 32.96 Kg/m2) undergoing lipoaspiration. Adipose stromal cells (hASCs) were isolated and differentiated into adipocytes in vitro.
Comparative epigenomic analysis of murine and human adipogenesis.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Loss of the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin is thought to enable metastasis by disrupting intercellular contacts - an early step in metastatic dissemination. To further investigate the molecular basis of this notion, we use two methods to inhibit E-cadherin function that distinguish between E-cadherin's cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling functions. While the disruption of cell-cell contacts alone does not enable metastasis, the loss of E-cadherin protein does, through induction of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasiveness and anoikis-resistance. We find the E-cadherin binding partner beta-catenin to be necessary but not sufficient for induction of these phenotypes. In addition, gene expression analysis shows that E-cadherin loss results in the induction of multiple transcription factors, at least one of which, Twist, is necessary for E-cadherin loss-induced metastasis. These findings indicate that E-cadherin loss in tumors contributes to metastatic dissemination by inducing wide-ranging transcriptional and functional changes.
Loss of E-cadherin promotes metastasis via multiple downstream transcriptional pathways.
Multiple genes are dysregulated in hindlimb buds of Nipbl-deficient embryos. In all, more than 1000 limb bud genes were found to be significantly altered in expression by microarray analysis of E10.5 mouse hindlimb buds.
Nipbl and mediator cooperatively regulate gene expression to control limb development.
Specimen partView Samples
Screens for agents that specifically kill epithelial cancer stem cells (CSCs) have not been possible due to the rarity of these cells within tumor cell populations and their relative instability in culture. We describe here an approach to screening for agents with epithelial CSC-specific toxicity. We implemented this method in a chemical screen and discovered compounds showing selective toxicity for breast CSCs. One compound, salinomycin, reduces the proportion of CSCs by >100-fold relative to paclitaxel, a commonly used breast cancer chemotherapeutic drug. Treatment of mice with salinomycin inhibits mammary tumor growth in vivo and induces increased epithelial differentiation of tumor cells. In addition, global gene expression analyses show that salinomycin treatment results in the loss of expression of breast CSC genes previously identified by analyses of breast tissues isolated directly from patients. This study demonstrates the ability to identify agents with specific toxicity for epithelial CSCs
Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening.
Specimen partView Samples