Under various pathophysiological muscle-wasting conditions like diabetes and starvation, a family of ubiquitin ligases, including MuRF1 (Muscle specific RING-Finger protein 1), are induced to target muscle proteins for degradation via ubiquitination. In an attempt to identify the in vivo targets of MuRF1 we have generated transgenic mouse lines overexpressing MuRF1 in a skeletal muscle specific fashion. MuRF1-TG lines were viable and had normal fertility. Characterization of their skeletal muscles did not reveal evidence for muscle wasting at 10 weeks of age. In this experiment we compared the skeletal muscle transcriptome of transgenic mice with wildtypes.
MuRF1-dependent regulation of systemic carbohydrate metabolism as revealed from transgenic mouse studies.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Glioblastoma cells are characterized by a highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet understood. Using the wound healing and Boyden chamber assays we compared in the present study the migration and invasion abilities of 5 glioblastoma cell lines (DK-MG, GaMG, U87-MG, U373-MG, SNB19) differing in p53 and PTEN status. We also analyzed by Western blotting the expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Among 5 cell lines, GaMG cells exhibited the fastest rate of wound closure, whereas U87-MG cells showed the most rapid chemotactic migration in the Boyden chamber assay. In DK-MG and GaMG cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG, U373-MG and SNB19 cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Moreover, the two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) were found to exhibit the fastest invasion rates through the Matrigel matrix.
Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status.
Specimen part, Cell lineView Samples
Post-hybridization washing is an essential part of microarray experiments. Both, the quality of the experimental washing protocol and the adequate consideration of washing in intensity calibration ultimately affect the quality of the expression estimates extracted from the microarray intensities. We conducted experiments on GeneChip microarrays with altered protocols for washing, scanning and staining to study the probe-level intensity changes as a function of washing cycles. Particularly, three Affymetrix GeneChip HGU133plus2 arrays were hybridized and equilibrated for 16 hours in the hybridization oven. For one of the three arrays washing and staining was performed according to the manufacturers instructions. For another array the first scan was done immediately after low stringent wash and staining without intermitting stringent washing. Then, the array was stringently washed and scanned in alternating order three more times where each washing step consists of a definite number of washing cycles. The third array was low stringently washed followed by two stringent washing cycles and staining before the first scan. Subsequently it was analogously processed as array A. All three chips are repeatedly processed in a second series of alternating wash/scan-cycles which was performed using the same protocol for each chip as in the first series as described above. As in the first series the arrays were also stained a second time to compensate for any loss of bleached fluorescent dye. Analysis of the washing kinetics shows that the signal-to-noise ratio doubles roughly every ten stringent washing cycles. Washing can be characterized by time-dependent rate constants which reflect the heterogeneous character of target binding to microarray probes. We propose an empirical washing function which estimates the survival of probe bound targets. The washing function allows calibrating probe intensities for the effect of washing. On a relative scale, proper calibration for washing markedly increases expression measures especially in the limit of small and large values.
Washing scaling of GeneChip microarray expression.
Cell lineView Samples
Thyroid autonomy is a frequent cause of thyrotoxicosis in regions with iodine deficiency. Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of thyroid autonomy is not only inversely correlated with the ambient iodine supply, but that iodide may also influence the course of pre-existing thyroid autonomy with possibly different effects on thyroid growth and function.
Effect of iodine on early stage thyroid autonomy.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
We report data obtaibed from high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs in 20 samples of follicular thyroid tumors. We analyzed a total of 4.7Â±1.5million reads per sample with 3 different pipelines. The main goal was to evaluate the usefulness of next generation sequencing in small RNA profiling and the concordance of its results with microarrays and qPCR. Additionally we verified published follicular thyroid tumor biomarkers in the set of our samples. Overall design: Small RNA expression profiling with High Throughput Sequencing of 20 thyroid tumor samples, performed on an Illumina HiScan-SQ.
Analysis options for high-throughput sequencing in miRNA expression profiling.
gene expression profiling in different zones along the gradient of the growing maize leaf balde aover a time course of dirunal cycle and carbon starvation by extension of the night
The Interplay between Carbon Availability and Growth in Different Zones of the Growing Maize Leaf.
This is a class prediction experiment, where the class is the response status to imatinib (also called Gleevec), a drug used to treat patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). There are two data sets, a training set (from Leipzig, 8 Responders and 5 Non-Responders) and a validation set (from Mannheim, 8 Responders and 7 Non-Responders). The objective is to identify differentially regulated genes between CML patients who respond and those who do not respond to imatinib and confirm the results in the validation data set. The samples from blood or bone marrow of CML patients were hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 chip and RMA was used to generate the normalized signal values.
In chronic myeloid leukemia white cells from cytogenetic responders and non-responders to imatinib have very similar gene expression signatures.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad was the first organ to have its cell lineage determined, and the gonadal lineages of the two sexes differ greatly in their pattern of cell divisions, cell migration and cell types. Despite much study, the genetic pathways that direct early gonadal development and establish its sexual dimorphism remain largely unknown, with just a handful of regulatory genes identified from genetic screens. To help define the genetic networks that regulate gonadal development, we employed cell-specific RNA-seq. We identified transcripts present in Z1/Z4 or Z1/Z4 daughter cells in each sex at the onset of somatic gonadal sexual differentiation. For comparison, transcripts were identified in whole animals at both time points. Pairwise comparisons of samples identified several hundred gonad-enriched transcripts, including most known Z1/Z4-enriched mRNAs, and reporter analysis confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. Prior to the Z1/Z4 division few sex-biased Z1/Z4 transcripts were detectable, but less than six hours later, we identified more than 250 sex-biased transcripts in the Z1/Z4 daughters, of which about a third were enriched in the somatic gonad cells compared to cells from whole animals. This indicates that a robust sex-biased developmental program, some of it gonad-specific, initiates in these cells around the time of the first Z1/Z4 division. Cell-specific analysis also identified approximately 70 previously unannotated mRNA isoforms that are enriched in Z1/Z4 or their daughters. Our data suggest that early sex differentiation in the gonad is controlled by a relatively small suite of differentially expressed genes, even after dimorphism has become apparent. Overall design: 20 total sample: two time points, two sexes, and gonadal cells or whole animals. The earlier time point was collected in triplicate and was harvested 9.5 hours after starved, hatched L1s were fed. The later time point was collected in duplicate and was harvested 15 hour after starved, hatched L1 were fed. Replicates of either dissociated whole animals or gonadal cells (Z1/Z4 or Z1/Z4 daughter) from both male and hermaphrodites were harvested for each time point.
Cell-Specific mRNA Profiling of the Caenorhabditis elegans Somatic Gonadal Precursor Cells Identifies Suites of Sex-Biased and Gonad-Enriched Transcripts.
Sex, Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
INTRODUCTION: CDKN2A (p16) inactivation is common in lung cancer and occurs via homozygous deletions, methylation of promoter region, or point mutations. Although p16 promoter methylation has been linked to KRAS mutation and smoking, the associations between p16 inactivation mechanisms and other common genetic mutations and smoking status are still controversial or unknown. METHODS: We determined all three p16 inactivation mechanisms with the use of multiple methodologies for genomic status, methylation, RNA, and protein expression, and correlated them with EGFR, KRAS, STK11 mutations and smoking status in 40 cell lines and 45 tumor samples of primary non-small-cell lung carcinoma. We also performed meta-analyses to investigate the impact of smoke exposure on p16 inactivation. RESULTS: p16 inactivation was the major mechanism of RB pathway perturbation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, with homozygous deletion being the most frequent method, followed by methylation and the rarer point mutations. Inactivating mechanisms were tightly correlated with loss of mRNA and protein expression. p16 inactivation occurred at comparable frequencies regardless of mutational status of EGFR, KRAS, and STK11, however, the major inactivation mechanism of p16 varied. p16 methylation was linked to KRAS mutation but was mutually exclusive with EGFR mutation. Cell lines and tumor samples demonstrated similar results. Our meta-analyses confirmed a modest positive association between p16 promoter methylation and smoking. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that all the inactivation mechanisms are truly associated with loss of gene product and identify specific associations between p16 inactivation mechanisms and other genetic changes and smoking status.
Molecular portraits of epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid States in lung adenocarcinoma and their relevance to survival.
Sex, Age, RaceView Samples