The difference in X chromosome copy number creates a potential difference in X chromosomal gene expression between males and females. In many animals, dosage compensation mechanisms equalize X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet, X chromosome is also enriched for sex-biased genes due to differences in the evolutionary history of the X and autosomes. The manner in which dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression exist on the X chromosome remains an open question. Most studies compare gene expression between two sexes, which combines expression differences due to X chromosome number (dose) and sex. Here, we uncoupled the effects of sex and X dose in C. elegans and determined how each process affects expression of the X chromosome compared to autosomes. We found that in the soma, sex-biased expression on the X chromosome is almost entirely due to sex because the dosage compensation complex (DCC) effectively compensates for the X dose difference between sexes. In the germline where the DCC is not present, X chromosome copy number contributes to hermaphrodite-biased gene expression. These results suggest that X dose contributes to sex-biased gene expression based on the level of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages. Overall design: RNA-Seq profiles of C. elegans XO hermaphrodite and XX male L3 larvae and adults
Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Midbrain dopamine neurons project to numerous targets throughout the brain to modulate various behaviors and brain states. Within this small population of neurons exists significant heterogeneity based on physiology, circuitry, and disease susceptibility. Recent studies have shown that dopamine neurons can be subdivided based on gene expression; however, the extent to which genetic markers represent functionally relevant dopaminergic subpopulations has not been fully explored. Here we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing of mouse dopamine neurons and validated studies showing that Neurod6 and Grp are selective markers for dopaminergic subpopulations. Using a combination of multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization, retrograde labeling, and electrophysiology in mice of both sexes, we defined the anatomy, projection targets, physiological properties, and disease vulnerability of dopamine neurons based on Grp and/or Neurod6 expression. We found that the combinatorial expression of Grp and Neurod6 defines dopaminergic subpopulations with unique features. Grp/Neurod6 dopamine neurons reside in the ventromedial VTA, send projections to the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens, and have noncanonical physiological properties. Grp/Neurod6- DA neurons are found in the VTA as well as in the ventromedial portion of the SNc, where they project selectively to the dorsomedial striatum. Grp-/Neurod6 DA neurons represent a smaller VTA subpopulation, which is preferentially spared in a 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. Together, our work provides detailed characterization of Neurod6 and Grp expression in the midbrain and generates new insights into how these markers define functionally relevant dopaminergic subpopulations with distinct projection patterns, physiology, and disease vulnerability. Overall design: We collected a total of 384 neurons from 8 different p26-p34 DAT-Cre::Ai9 mice (6 male 2 female) to isolate DA neurons. RNA was captured from each samples neurons on separate fluidigm chips then all samples were pooled before sequencing.
Combinatorial Expression of <i>Grp</i> and <i>Neurod6</i> Defines Dopamine Neuron Populations with Distinct Projection Patterns and Disease Vulnerability.
Sex, Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
Characterization of the transcriptome of normal and abnormal embryos. Overall design: Gene expression profiling of every mono and trisomy.
Human blastocysts of normal and abnormal karyotypes display distinct transcriptome profiles.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
To understand the basic biological property of hair cells (HCs) from lower vertebrates, we examined transcriptomes of adult zebrafish HCs. GFP-labeled HCs were isolated from the utricle, saccule, and lagena, the three inner-ear sensory epithelia of a pou4f3 promoter-driven GAP-GFP line of transgenic zebrafish. 2,000 HCs and 2,000 non-sensory cells from the inner ear were individually collected by suction pipet technique. RNA sequencing was performed and the resulting sequences were mapped, analyzed, and compared. Comparisons allow us to identify enriched genes in HCs, which may underlie HC specialization. Overall design: Examination of transcriptomes of adult zebrafish inner ear hair cells and surrounding cells individually collected and sorted using pou4f3 promoter-driven GFP marking hair cells.
RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of adult zebrafish inner ear hair cells.
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RNA-Seq profiling of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. We profiled RNA expression in the estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) MCF-7 and the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The objective was to find genes differentially expressed between these cell lines as potential drivers of invasiveness of the triple-negative MDA-MB-231. We further utilized the identified differential genes to validate expression-responsive module of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Overall design: 2 biological replicates of MCF-7 and 3 biological replicates of MDA-MB-231
Newly Constructed Network Models of Different WNT Signaling Cascades Applied to Breast Cancer Expression Data.
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Inflammation is common to many disorders and responsible for tissue and organ damage. However, the associated peripheral cytokine milieu is frequently dilute and difficult to measure, necessitating development of more sensitive and informative biomarkers for mechanistic studies, earlier diagnosis, and monitoring therapeutic interventions. Previously, we have shown that sera from type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients induces a unique disease-specific pro-inflammatory transcriptional profile in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to sera of healthy controls.
Use of transcriptional signatures induced in lymphoid and myeloid cell lines as an inflammatory biomarker in Type 1 diabetes.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
The knock-out of calpain 3 (C3KO) is a murine model for calpainopathies wich shows a mild dystrophic phenotype with signs of muscle degeneration. Adult (A) mice show a more severe phenotype than young (Y) mice which only present inflammatory infiltrates in most severely affected muscles, such as the soleus. Other muscles (e.g. quadriceps) are much less affected.
C3KO mouse expression analysis: downregulation of the muscular dystrophy Ky protein and alterations in muscle aging.
Specimen partView Samples
In this report, we have found that gata1 expressing erythroid cells contribute to a significant proportion of total body oxidative stress when animals were exposed to a strong pro-oxidant. RNA-seq of zebrafish under oxidative stress revealed the induction of tp53. Zebrafish carrying tp53 with mutation in its DNA binding domain were acutely sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure and displayed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tp53-independent erythroid cell death resulting in an edematous phenotype. We found that a major contributing factor to ROS was increased basal mitochondrial respiratory rate without reserve. These data add to the concept that tp53, while classically a tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator, has additional roles in controlling cellular oxidative stress. Overall design: We performed RNA-seq in two experiments. (1) Wild-type zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1-naphthol (vs no exposure) from 24 - 72 hpf (n = 5/group). (2) tp53 mutant zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1-naphthol (vs no exposure) from 24 - 72 hpf (n = 5/group).
TP53 Modulates Oxidative Stress in Gata1<sup>+</sup> Erythroid Cells.
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The aim of the study was to generate transcriptome of wild-type and G9a mutant adult flies (females) 24h post-infection with Drosophila C Virus (DCV). Overall design: We generated 8 different data sets. For wild-type controls and G9a mutants, we performed both mock and DCV infection, and collected both whole flies and fat bodies. All flies were 3-5 days old females.
The epigenetic regulator G9a mediates tolerance to RNA virus infection in Drosophila.
Specimen part, Subject, TimeView Samples
To study the role of the plant hormone jasmonate in regulating stress-induced allocation of photosynthetic products between growth- and defense-related processes, we used RNA-sequencing to query the Arabidopsis transcriptome at high temporal resolution over 24 h after treatment with the bacterial toxin coronatine (COR), a high-affinity agonist of the JA receptor, or with a mock solution to account for diurnal changes in gene expression. These data establish a fine-scale view of the kinetics of jasmonate signaling, as well as of the diurnal patterns of gene expression.
Temporal Dynamics of Growth and Photosynthesis Suppression in Response to Jasmonate Signaling.
Age, Specimen part, Treatment, TimeView Samples