There is growing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies suggesting that early life exposure to environmental chemicals can have long-term consequences that are seen in adults and not apparent early in life. We recently demonstrated that developmental exposure of zebrafish embryos to low, non-embryotoxic levels of PCB126 did not affect larval behavior but caused changes in adult behavior (Glazer et al., 2016, NeuroToxicology 52:134-143). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to either vehicle (DMSO) or low concentrations of PCB126 (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 nM) for 20 h (4â€“24 h post fertilization), and then reared to adulthood in clean water. Locomotor activity of the larvae at 7 and 14 days post fertilization (dpf) was not affected by PCB126. In contrast, adult fish (4 months old) tested in novel tank and shoaling assays showed impaired habituation to a novel environment. In order to investigate the underlying molecular basis of these phenotypes, we determined the transcriptional profiles in whole embryos (48 hpf), larvae (5 dpf) and adult brain (4 mo) using strand-specific RNA-sequencing. Our results show that 0.3 nM PCB126 exposure induced cyp1a transcript levels 12.5-fold in 48-hpf embryos but there was no induction in 5-dpf larvae, suggesting transient activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor during early development. No significant induction of cyp1a was observed in the brains of adults exposed as embryos to PCB126. However, we observed significant changes in gene expression profiles in the adult brain samples. A total of 2209 and 1628 genes were differentially expressed in 0.3 nM and 1.2 nM PCB126-exposed groups, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes in the brain suggest enrichment of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, neurodegenerative diseases, circadian rhythm and calcium signaling pathways. We are currently investigating the role of these genes in altered behavior observed in the adults. Overall, our results suggest that PCB exposure during sensitive periods of early development alters normal development of the brain by reprogramming gene expression patterns. [Funded by NIH P01ES021923 and NSF OCE-1314642]. Overall design: A total of 24 samples were sequenced. It includes 3 different time points and 2 or 3 different treatments. Each treatment had 3 biological replicates.
Early Life Exposure to Low Levels of AHR Agonist PCB126 (3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) Reprograms Gene Expression in Adult Brain.
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Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays an essential role in regulating calcium and bone homeostasis in the adult, but whether PTH is required at all for regulating fetal-placental mineral homeostasis is uncertain. To address this we treated Pth-null mice in utero with 1 nmol PTH (1-84) or saline and examined placental calcium transfer 90 minutes later. It was found that placental calcium transfer increased in Pth-null fetuses treated with PTH as compared to Pth-null fetuses treated with saline. Subsequently, to determine the effect of PTH treatment on placental gene expression, in a separate experiment, 90 minutes after the fetal injections the placentas were removed for subsequent RNA extraction and microarray analysis.
Parathyroid hormone regulates fetal-placental mineral homeostasis.
Sex, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Overall goal: To elucidate the endothelial-specific role of Gata4 signaling in endothelial maturation and vascular maintenance. Purpose of analysis: To generate a transcriptional profile of Gata4-deficient endothelial cells in the adult myocardium under homeostatic conditions. Overall design: Experimental structure: Transcriptional profile generated using RNAseq and differential gene expression analyses of endothelial cells lacking Gata4 isolated from healthy hearts.
Gata4-Dependent Differentiation of c-Kit<sup>+</sup>-Derived Endothelial Cells Underlies Artefactual Cardiomyocyte Regeneration in the Heart.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
Prostate cancer is dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling at all stages of the disease and cyclin D1 has been shown to negatively modulate the expression of the AR-dependent gene prostate specific antigen (KLK3/PSA).
Cyclin D1 is a selective modifier of androgen-dependent signaling and androgen receptor function.
Cell line, TreatmentView Samples
Cardiac fibroblasts convert to myofibroblasts with injury to mediate healing after acute myocardial infarction and to mediate long-standing fibrosis with chronic disease. Myofibroblasts remain a poorly defined cell-type in terms of their origins and functional effects in vivo. Methods: Here we generate Postn (periostin) gene-targeted mice containing a tamoxifen inducible Cre for cellular lineage tracing analysis. This Postn allele identifies essentially all myofibroblasts within the heart and multiple other tissues. Results: Lineage tracing with 4 additional Cre-expressing mouse lines shows that periostin-expressing myofibroblasts in the heart derive from tissue-resident fibroblasts of the Tcf21 lineage, but not endothelial, immune/myeloid or smooth muscle cells. Deletion of periostin+ myofibroblasts reduces collagen production and scar formation after myocardial infarction. Periostin-traced myofibroblasts also revert back to a less activated state upon injury resolution. Conclusions: Our results define the myofibroblast as a periostin-expressing cell-type necessary for adaptive healing and fibrosis in the heart, which arises from Tcf21+ tissue-resident fibroblasts. Overall design: Fluidigm C1 whole genome transcriptome analysis of lineage mapped cardiac myofibroblasts
Genetic lineage tracing defines myofibroblast origin and function in the injured heart.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
To identify differences in gene expression between peptidylprolyl isomerase F (cyclophilin D; Ppif)-null hearts and WT control hearts.
Cyclophilin D controls mitochondrial pore-dependent Ca(2+) exchange, metabolic flexibility, and propensity for heart failure in mice.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
Growing evidence implicates the importance of glia, particularly astrocytes, in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and robust method for the differentiation of highly pure populations of astrocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), via a neural progenitor cell (NPC) intermediate. Using this method, we generated hiPSC-derived astrocyte populations (hiPSC-astrocytes) from 42 NPC lines (derived from 30 individuals) with an average of ~90% S100ÃŸ-positive cells. Transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that the hiPSC-astrocytes are highly similar to primary human fetal astrocytes and characteristic of a non-reactive state. hiPSC-astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimulants, display phagocytic capacity and enhance microglial phagocytosis. hiPSC-astrocytes also possess spontaneous calcium transient activity. Our novel protocol is a reproducible, straightforward (single media) and rapid (<30 days) method to generate homogenous populations of hiPSC-astrocytes that can be used for neuron-astrocyte and microglia-astrocyte co-cultures for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders. Overall design: 6 hiPSC-derived astrocyte lines were generated. Total RNA were extracted from these hiPSC-astrocytes as well as 2 primary astrocyte lines and analyzed by RNA sequencing.
An Efficient Platform for Astrocyte Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.
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Prospective isolation is critical to understand the cellular and molecular aspects of stem cell heterogeneity. Here we identify the cell surface antigen CD9 as a novel positive marker that provides a simple alternative for hematopoietic stem cell-isolation at high purity Overall design: mRNA profiles of LT and ST HSCs
The tetraspanin CD9 affords high-purity capture of all murine hematopoietic stem cells.
Type I IFNs are implicated in the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recently, a Phase I open-label trial was conducted with an anti-IFNAR1 receptor antibody (anifrolumab) in adult SSc patients. In this study, we aim to assess the downstream effects of anifrolumab and elucidate the role of type I IFN in SSc. Serum proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) markers were measured in relation to IFN pathway activation status and SSc disease activity. Our results demonstrated a robust overexpression of multiple serum proteins in SSc patients, particularly those with an elevated baseline type I IFN gene signature. Anifrolumab administration was associated with significant downregulation of T cellassociated proteins and upregulation of type III collagen degradation marker. Whole-blood and skin microarray results also indicated the inhibition of T cell receptor and ECMrelated transcripts by anifrolumab. In summary, our study demonstrates suppressive effects of anifrolumab on T cell activation and collagen accumulation through which tissue fibrosis may be reduced in SSc patients. The relationship between these peripheral markers and the clinical response to anifrolumab may be examined in larger double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Suppression of T Cell Activation and Collagen Accumulation by an Anti-IFNAR1 mAb, Anifrolumab, in Adult Patients with Systemic Sclerosis.
Specimen part, Disease, Disease stage, TimeView Samples
Skeletal muscle mass is an important determinant of whole-body glucose disposal. We here show that mice (M-PDK1KO mice) with skeletal muscle–specific deficiency of 3'-phosphoinositide–dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a key component of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, manifest a reduced skeletal muscle mass under the static condition as well as impairment of exercise load–induced muscle hypertrophy.
Role of PDK1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by mechanical load.
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