Heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor GATA3 are identified in 10-15% of all breast cancer cases. Most of these are protein-truncating mutations, concentrated within or downstream of the second GATA-type zinc-finger domain. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of expression of two truncated GATA3 mutants, in vitro in breast cancer cell lines and in vivo in the mouse mammary gland. We found that the truncated GATA3 mutants display altered DNA binding activity caused by preferred tethering through FOXA1. In addition, expression of the truncated GATA3 mutants reduces E-cadherin expression and promotes anchorage-independent growth in vitro. However, we could not identify any effects of truncated GATA3 expression on mammary gland development or mammary tumor formation in mice. Together, our results demonstrate that both truncated GATA3 mutants promote cistromic re-programming of GATA3 in vitro, but these mutants are not sufficient to induce tumor formation in mice. Overall design: RNAseq data of T47D cells expressing HA-tagged wild-type GATA3 (HA_GATA3_wt) or one of two truncated variants (HA_GATA3_TR1 and HA_GATA3_TR2).
GATA3 Truncating Mutations Promote Cistromic Re-Programming In Vitro, but Not Mammary Tumor Formation in Mice.
Specimen part, Cell line, SubjectView Samples
To provide further insight about the effects of prolonged Ezh2 inhibition in glioblastoma using preclinical mouse models and doxycycline-inducible shRNAs that mimic the effects of a selective EZH2 inhibitor. We demonstrate that prolonged Ezh2-depletion causes a robust switch in cell fate, including significantly enhanced proliferation and DNA damage repair and activation of part of the pluripotency network, resulting in altered tumor cell identity and tumor progression. Overall design: SVZ derived neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from 7 days old p53;Ink4a/Arf;Krasv12;LucR compound conditional mice and cultured in NSC specific serum-free medium supplemented with 20ng/ml of both EGF and bFGF (R&D systems). NSCs were grown adhesion-free for the first passages to eliminate non-sphere-forming cells. Next, cells were grown adherent on poly-L-Ornithine and Laminin plates and three times infected with lentiviral CMV-Cre. These floxed, tumorigenic cells are further referred as glioma initiating cells (GICs). Next, GICs were infected with a tet-inducible, doxycycline-responsive short hairpin construct (FH1-tUTG-shEzh2). After FACS sorting for GFP, GICs were injected intracranial in NOD-SCID mice and treated with or without doxycycline in the drinking water
Prolonged Ezh2 Depletion in Glioblastoma Causes a Robust Switch in Cell Fate Resulting in Tumor Progression.
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We have compared the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome of two isogenic cell lines: MCF-10A, derived from human breast epithelium, and the mutant MCF-10A-H1047R. These cell lines differ by a single amino acid substitution (H1047R) caused by single nucleotide change in one allele of the PIK3CA gene which encodes the catalytic subunit p110a of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The H1047R mutation of PIK3CA is one of the most frequently encountered somatic cancer-specific mutations. In MCF-10A, this mutation induces an extensive cellular reorganization that far exceeds the known signaling activities of PI3K. The changes are highly diverse; with examples in structural protein levels, the DNA repair machinery and sterol synthesis. Gene set enrichment analysis reveals a highly significant concordance of the genes differentially expressed in MCF-10A-H1047R cells and the established protein and RNA signatures of basal breast cancer. No such concordance was found with the specific gene signatures of other histological types of breast cancer. Our data document the power of a single base mutation, inducing an extensive remodeling of the cell toward the phenotype of a specific cancer. Overall design: 2 cell lines (H1047R and WT), 4 time points (0, 6, 12, 24 hours), 3 replicates
The butterfly effect in cancer: a single base mutation can remodel the cell.
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The mechanisms underlying natural variation in lifespan and ageing rate remain largely unknown.
Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extension.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
Expression of the EMT-inducing transcription factor Snail is enhanced in different human cancers. To investigate the in vivo role of Snail during progression of epithelial cancer, we used a mouse model with skin-specific overexpression of Snail. Snail transgenic mice spontaneously developed distinct histological subtypes of skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma. Development of sebaceous gland carcinomas strongly correlated with the direct and complete repression of Blimp-1, a central regulator of sebocyte homeostasis. Snail expression in keratinocyte stem cells significantly promotes their proliferation associated with an activated FoxM1 gene expression signature, resulting in a larger pool of Mts24-marked progenitor cells. Furthermore, primary keratinocytes expressing Snail showed increased survival and strong resistance to genotoxic stress. Snail expression in a skin-specific p53-null background resulted in accelerated formation of spontaneous tumours and enhanced metastasis. Our data demonstrate that in vivo expression of Snail results in de novo epithelial carcinogenesis by allowing enhanced survival, expansion of the cancer stem cell pool with accumulated DNA damage, a block in terminal differentiation and increased proliferation rates of tumour-initiating cells.
Epidermal Snail expression drives skin cancer initiation and progression through enhanced cytoprotection, epidermal stem/progenitor cell expansion and enhanced metastatic potential.
Sex, Age, Specimen partView Samples
Response to allergen was studied in epithelial cells derived from allergic pantients and from healthy controls. Cells were cultured after isolation from a nasal biopsy. Cells were exposed to Housed dust mite or vessel (saline)
Primary nasal epithelium exposed to house dust mite extract shows activated expression in allergic individuals.
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The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were administered daily for 14 days at the Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (LOAEL) or at a two- or three-fold lower concentration individually or in binary or ternary mixtures. The compounds had strong antagonistic effects on each others gene expression changes, which included several genes encoding Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes. On the other hand, the mixtures affected the expression of “novel” genes that were not or little affected by the individual compounds. Based on gene expression changes, the three compounds exhibited a synergistic interaction at the LOAEL in the liver and both at the sub-LOAEL and LOAEL in the kidney. Many of the genes induced by mixtures but not by single compounds, such as Id2, Nr2f6, Tnfrsf1a, Ccng1, Mdm2 and Nfkb1 in the liver, are known to affect cellular proliferation, apoptosis and function. This indicates a shift from compound specific response on exposure to individual compounds to a more generic stress response to mixtures. Most of the effects on cell viability as concluded from transcriptomics were not detected by classical toxicological research illustrating the difference in sensitivity of these techniques. These results emphasize the benefit of applying toxicogenomics in mixture interaction studies, which yields biomarkers for joint toxicity and eventually can result in an interaction model for most known toxins.
Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, Treatment, CompoundView Samples
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a p53-dependent defence mechanism against uncontrolled proliferation. Consequently, many human tumours harbour p53 mutations while others show a dysfunctional p53 pathway, frequently by unknown mechanisms. We identified BRD7, a bromodomain-containing protein whose inhibition allows full neoplastic transformation in the presence of wild-type p53. Intriguingly, in human breast tumours harbouring wild-type, but not mutant p53, the BRD7 gene locus was frequently deleted and low BRD7 expression was found in a subgroup of tumours. Functionally, BRD7 is required for efficient p53-mediated transcription of a subset of target genes. BRD7 interacts with p53 and p300, and is recruited to target gene promoters, affecting histone acetylation, p53 acetylation, and promoter activity. Thus, BRD7 suppresses tumourigenicity by serving as a p53 cofactor required for efficient induction of p53-dependent OIS.
BRD7 is a candidate tumour suppressor gene required for p53 function.
Specimen part, Disease, Cell lineView Samples
A specialized population of memory CD8+ T-cells resides in the epithelium of the respiratory tract to maintain protection against recurring infections. These cells express CD69 and the integrin 7 (CD103) and correspond to tissue resident memory T-cells (TRM) also described in intestine, liver and brain. A less well characterized population of CD103- CD8+ T-cells also resides in lungs and expresses markers characteristic of effector memory T-cells (TEM). We determined the transcriptional profiles of these memory CD8+ T-cell subsets retrieved from human lung resection samples and compared these with corresponding T-cell populations from peripheral blood of the same individuals. Our results demonstrate that each of the populations exhibits a distinct transcriptional identity. We found that the lung environment has a major impact on gene expression profiles. Thus, transcriptomes from CD103+ and CD103- subsets from lungs are much more resemblant to one another than to those from CD103+ or CD103- memory CD8+ T-cells from blood. TRM express specific sets of chemokine receptors, in accordance with their unique migratory properties. Furthermore, these cells constitutively express cytokine and cytotoxic genes for immediate effector function and chemokines to attract auxiliary immune cells. At the same time, multiple genes encoding inhibitory regulators are also expressed. This suggests that rapid ability to unleash effector functions is counterbalanced by programmed restraint, a combination that may be critical in the exposed but delicate tissue of the lung. Comprehensive sets of transcription factors were identified that characterize the memory CD8+ populations in the lungs. Prominent among these were components of the Notch pathway. Using mice genetically lacking expression of the NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors in T-cells, we demonstrated that Notch controls both the number of lung TRM as well as the function of lung TEM. Our data illustrate the adaptation of lung resident T-cells to the requirements of the respiratory epithelial environment. Defining the molecular imprinting of these cells is important for rational vaccine design and may help to improve the properties of T-cells for adoptive cellular therapy.
Programs for the persistence, vigilance and control of human CD8<sup>+</sup> lung-resident memory T cells.
Specimen part, SubjectView Samples
The goal of this experiment was to determine gene expresssion differences between neutrophils from either K14cre;CdhF/F;Trp53F/F mammary tumor-bearing mice or wild-type mice. Overall design: Neturophil expression profiles were compared between four wild-type mice and five K14cre;CdhF/F;Trp53F/F mice.
IL-17-producing γδ T cells and neutrophils conspire to promote breast cancer metastasis.
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