Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 d of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 d of enteral formula feeding. Antibiotics (n=11) or control saline (n=13) were given twice daily from birth to tissue collection at d 5. NEC-lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology and immunity markers were recorded.
Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Cellular RNA levels are determined by transcription and decay rates, which are fundamental in understanding gene expression regulation. Measurement of these two parameters is usually performed independently, complicating analysis and introducing methodological biases that hamper direct comparison. Here, we present a simple approach of concurrent sequencing of S. cerevisiae polyA+ and polyA- RNA 3' ends to simultaneously estimate total RNA levels, transcription and decay rates from the same RNA sample. The transcription data generated correlate well with reported estimates and also reveal local RNA polymerase stalling and termination sites with high precision. Although the method by design uses brief metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNA with 4-thiouridine, the results demonstrate that transcription estimates can also be gained from unlabeled RNA samples. These findings underscore the potential of the approach, which should be generally applicable to study a range of biological questions in diverse organisms. Overall design: RNA 3' end seq of total and 2min 4-thiouracil (4tU) labelled RNA from S. cerevisiae cells. Aliquots of RNA were directly subjected to pA+ RNA 3' end sequencing (noPap samples). A second aliquot was in vitro polyadenylated using E. coli poly(A) polymerase and ribodepleted before library preparation (xPap samples).
Simultaneous Measurement of Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Parameters by 3' End RNA-Seq.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The present study reports an unbiased analysis of the genetic profile and regulation of NKG2D expressing CD4 T-cells.An Affymetrix microarray analysis was used to explore the genetic profile of NKG2D+ versus NKG2D- CD4 T-cells. The genetic profile was studied by single gene analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. I found that several immune regulatory receptors was regulated differently in NKG2D+ versus NKG2D- CD4 T-cells. Futhermore, I found that NKG2D+ CD4 T-cells display a genetic profile of cytotoxic T-cells. The gene set enrichment analysis revealed a change in 19 processes, including ARF GTPase activator activity; RNA splicing; Signal transduction; Interspecies interaction between organisms; Regulation of ARF GTPase activity; Cell motility; Mitosis; Cell cycle; Anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; Induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals; Negative regulation of apoptosis; mRNA export from nucleus; Positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle; Cell division; Protein polymerization; Spliceosome assembly; Microtubule-based movement; Immune response; mRNA processing.
Regulation and gene expression profiling of NKG2D positive human cytomegalovirus-primed CD4+ T-cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Alternative splicing and mRNA editing are known to contribute to transcriptome diversity. Although alternative splicing is pervasive and known to contribute to a variety of pathologies, including cancer, the genetic context for individual differences in isoform usage is still evolving. Similarly, although mRNA editing is ubiquitous and associated with important biological processes such as intracellular viral replication and cancer development, individual variations in and the genetic transmissibility of mRNA editing are equivocal. Here, we have used linkage analysis to show that both mRNA editing and alternative splicing are regulated by the macrophage genetic background and environmental cues. We show that distinct loci, potentially harboring variable splice factors, regulate the splicing of multiple transcripts. Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing mostly a truncated isoform of Apobec1 exhibiting lower rates of editing. As a proof of concept, we have used linkage analysis to identify 36 high confidence novel edited sites. These results provide a novel and complementary method that can be used to identify C-to-U editing sites in individuals segregating at specific loci and show that, beyond individual DNA sequence and structural changes, differential isoform usage and mRNA editing can contribute to intra-species genomic and phenotypic diversity. Overall design: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from female AxB/BxA mice were left unstimulated or stimulated with IFNG/TNF, or CpG for 18 hrs or infected with infected with type II (Pru A7) for 8 hrs. The transcriptional response was then measured using the illumina RNA-seq protocol on an illumuna HiSeq 2000.
The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
Our objective was to determine the nature and extent of androgen regulation of gene expression in the female lacrimal, meibomian,and submandibular glands, and to explore the degree to which this control is the same as in male glands.
Influence of testosterone on gene expression in the ovariectomized mouse submandibular gland.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Different types of hair follicles can be found in the skin of mice. It is believed that the signals that control hair follicle differentiation arise from cells in a structure called the dermal papilla. Understanding the nature of those signals is of interest for the biology of the normal tissue.
Sox2-positive dermal papilla cells specify hair follicle type in mammalian epidermis.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
The transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is essential for specification of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Moreover, ectopic expression of Zbtb20 is sufficient to transform subicular and retrosplenial areas of D6/Zbtb20S mice to CA1. We used microarrays to identify genes that are repressed by Zbtb20 in developing CA1 pyramidal neurons in the CA1-transformed cortex of D6/Zbtb20S mice.
Zbtb20 defines a hippocampal neuronal identity through direct repression of genes that control projection neuron development in the isocortex.
Specimen partView Samples