Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed 3 d of parenteral nutrition followed by 2 d of enteral formula feeding. Antibiotics (n=11) or control saline (n=13) were given twice daily from birth to tissue collection at d 5. NEC-lesions and intestinal structure, function, microbiology and immunity markers were recorded.
Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Using anti-Argonaute (anti-AGO) antibody co-immunoprecipitation, followed by microarray analyses and downstream bioinformatics, RIP-Chip experiments enable direct analyses of miRNA targets. The analyses support four major findings: (i) RIP-Chip studies correlated with total input mRNA profiling provides more comprehensive information than using either RIP-Chip or total mRNA profiling alone after miRNA transfections; (ii) new data confirm that miR-107 paralogs target coding sequence (CDS) of mRNA; (iii) biochemical and computational studies indicate that the 3 portion of miRNAs plays a role in guiding miR-103/7 to the CDS of targets; and (iv) there are major sequence-specific targeting differences between miRNAs in terms of CDS versus 3-untranslated region targeting, and stable AGO association versus mRNA knockdown. For detailed protocol and for full discussion of the results please see Nelson PT et al, Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Oct;39(18):8163-72.
Specific sequence determinants of miR-15/107 microRNA gene group targets.
Specimen part, Disease, Cell lineView Samples
The goal of this study is to identify downstream pathways, diagnostic markers, and potential therapeutic targets for IFS/CMN.
Mediators of receptor tyrosine kinase activation in infantile fibrosarcoma: a Children's Oncology Group study.
Specimen partView Samples
Cellular RNA levels are determined by transcription and decay rates, which are fundamental in understanding gene expression regulation. Measurement of these two parameters is usually performed independently, complicating analysis and introducing methodological biases that hamper direct comparison. Here, we present a simple approach of concurrent sequencing of S. cerevisiae polyA+ and polyA- RNA 3' ends to simultaneously estimate total RNA levels, transcription and decay rates from the same RNA sample. The transcription data generated correlate well with reported estimates and also reveal local RNA polymerase stalling and termination sites with high precision. Although the method by design uses brief metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNA with 4-thiouridine, the results demonstrate that transcription estimates can also be gained from unlabeled RNA samples. These findings underscore the potential of the approach, which should be generally applicable to study a range of biological questions in diverse organisms. Overall design: RNA 3' end seq of total and 2min 4-thiouracil (4tU) labelled RNA from S. cerevisiae cells. Aliquots of RNA were directly subjected to pA+ RNA 3' end sequencing (noPap samples). A second aliquot was in vitro polyadenylated using E. coli poly(A) polymerase and ribodepleted before library preparation (xPap samples).
Simultaneous Measurement of Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Parameters by 3' End RNA-Seq.
Cell line, SubjectView Samples
The present study reports an unbiased analysis of the genetic profile and regulation of NKG2D expressing CD4 T-cells.An Affymetrix microarray analysis was used to explore the genetic profile of NKG2D+ versus NKG2D- CD4 T-cells. The genetic profile was studied by single gene analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. I found that several immune regulatory receptors was regulated differently in NKG2D+ versus NKG2D- CD4 T-cells. Futhermore, I found that NKG2D+ CD4 T-cells display a genetic profile of cytotoxic T-cells. The gene set enrichment analysis revealed a change in 19 processes, including ARF GTPase activator activity; RNA splicing; Signal transduction; Interspecies interaction between organisms; Regulation of ARF GTPase activity; Cell motility; Mitosis; Cell cycle; Anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process; Induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals; Negative regulation of apoptosis; mRNA export from nucleus; Positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle; Cell division; Protein polymerization; Spliceosome assembly; Microtubule-based movement; Immune response; mRNA processing.
Regulation and gene expression profiling of NKG2D positive human cytomegalovirus-primed CD4+ T-cells.
Specimen partView Samples
Staphylococcus aureus produces the cyclic dipeptides tyrvalin and phevalin (aureusimine A and B, respectively).
Phevalin (aureusimine B) production by Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and impacts on human keratinocyte gene expression.
Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Alternative splicing and mRNA editing are known to contribute to transcriptome diversity. Although alternative splicing is pervasive and known to contribute to a variety of pathologies, including cancer, the genetic context for individual differences in isoform usage is still evolving. Similarly, although mRNA editing is ubiquitous and associated with important biological processes such as intracellular viral replication and cancer development, individual variations in and the genetic transmissibility of mRNA editing are equivocal. Here, we have used linkage analysis to show that both mRNA editing and alternative splicing are regulated by the macrophage genetic background and environmental cues. We show that distinct loci, potentially harboring variable splice factors, regulate the splicing of multiple transcripts. Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing mostly a truncated isoform of Apobec1 exhibiting lower rates of editing. As a proof of concept, we have used linkage analysis to identify 36 high confidence novel edited sites. These results provide a novel and complementary method that can be used to identify C-to-U editing sites in individuals segregating at specific loci and show that, beyond individual DNA sequence and structural changes, differential isoform usage and mRNA editing can contribute to intra-species genomic and phenotypic diversity. Overall design: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from female AxB/BxA mice were left unstimulated or stimulated with IFNG/TNF, or CpG for 18 hrs or infected with infected with type II (Pru A7) for 8 hrs. The transcriptional response was then measured using the illumina RNA-seq protocol on an illumuna HiSeq 2000.
The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages.
Age, Specimen part, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples