Generating human serotonergic neurons from fibroblasts
Generation of functional human serotonergic neurons from fibroblasts.
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Despite widespread interest in using human stem cells in neurological disease modeling, a suitable model system to study human neuronal connectivity is lacking. Here, we report a protocol for efficient differentiation of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and an in vitro model for hippocampal neuronal connectivity. We developed an embryonic stem cell (ESC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based protocol to differentiate human CA3 pyramidal neurons from patterned hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs). This differentiation induces a comprehensive patterning and generates multiple CA3 neuronal subtypes. The differentiated CA3 neurons are functionally active and readily form neuronal connection with dentate granule (DG) neurons in vitro, recapitulating the synaptic connectivity within the hippocampus. When we applied this neuronal co-culture approach to study connectivity in schizophrenia, we found deficits in spontaneous activity in patient iPSC derived DGâ€“CA3 co-culture by multi-electrode array recording. In addition, both multi-electrode array recording and whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology revealed a reduction in spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity in CA3 neurons derived from schizophrenia patients. Altogether these results underscore the relevance of this new model in studying diseases with hippocampal vulnerability. Overall design: 4 technical replicates were used and later pooled together for the bioinformatic analysis.
Efficient Generation of CA3 Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Enables Modeling of Hippocampal Connectivity In Vitro.
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Transcriptome analysis of post-mortem brain tissue specimens from three brain regions (BRs), entorinal, temporal and frontal cortices, of 71 Japanese brain-donor subjects to identify genes relevant to the expansion of neurofibrillary tangles. In total, 213 brain tissue specimens (= 71 subjects 3 BRs) were involved in this study. The spreading of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intraneuronal aggregates of highly phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau, across the human brain is correlated with the cognitive severity of Alzheimers disease (AD). To identify genes relevant to NFT expansion defined by the Braak stage, we conducted exon array analysis with an exploratory sample set consisting of 213 human post-mortem brain tissue specimens from the entorinal, temporal and frontal cortices of 71 brain-donor subjects: Braak NFT stages 0 (N = 13), III (N = 20), IIIIV (N = 19) and VVI (N = 19). We identified eight genes, RELN, PTGS2, MYO5C, TRIL, DCHS2, GRB14, NPAS4 and PHYHD1, associated with the Braak stage. The expression levels of three genes, PHYHD1, MYO5C and GRB14, exhibited reproducible association on real-time quantitative PCR analysis. In another sample set, including control subjects (N = 30) and patients with late-onset AD (N = 37), dementia with Lewy bodies (N = 17) and Parkinson disease (N = 36), the expression levels of two genes, PHYHD1 and MYO5C, were obviously associated with late-onset AD. Proteinprotein interaction network analysis with a public database revealed that PHYHD1 interacts with MYO5C via POT1, and PHYHD1 directly interacts with amyloid beta-peptide 42. It is thus likely that functional failure of PHYHD1 and MYO5C could lead to AD development.
Genes associated with the progression of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease.
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The Japanese Serous Ovarian Cancer Study Group
High-risk ovarian cancer based on 126-gene expression signature is uniquely characterized by downregulation of antigen presentation pathway.
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