We hypothesized that altered extracellular osmolality per se could affect the transcriptome of the kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, and hence it might change renal tubular function. The data sets of transcriptomics were incorporated into the "omic" data sets of metabolomics. Primary cultured IMCD cells of rat kidney were grown in hyperosmolar culture medium (640 mOsm/KgH2O) for 4 d, and then the cells were cultured in the medium with either reduced (300 mOsm/KgH2O) or the same osmolality for 1 or 2 d more.
Patterns of gene and metabolite define the effects of extracellular osmolality on kidney collecting duct.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, TreatmentView Samples
Compatibility between high-density oligonucleotide arrays is significantly affected by probe-level sequence information. With a careful filtering of the probes based on their sequence overlaps, data from different generations of microarrays can be combined more effectively. The dataset of 14 human muscle biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathies that were hybridized on both HG-U95Av2 and HG-U133A human arrays for this purpose. Signal values from GCOS 1.2 with Detection call and p-value are provided here, and CEL files are also available for download.
Combining gene expression data from different generations of oligonucleotide arrays.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Our current study showed that the ABA and ethylene signal transduction pathways function in parallel and have antagonistic interaction during seed germination and early seedling growth. To further address the possible mechanism by which these two hormones crosstalk, microarray analysis was performed. By microarray analysis we found that an ACC oxidase (ACO) was significantly up-regulated in the aba2 mutant, whereas the 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE (NCED3) gene in ein2, and both the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and cytochrome P450, family 707, subfamily A, polypeptide 2 (CYP707A2) genes in etr1-1 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. These data further suggest that ABA and ethylene may control the hormonal biosynthesis, catabolism or signaling of each other to enhance their antagonistic effects upon seed germination and early seedling growth.
Antagonism between abscisic acid and ethylene in Arabidopsis acts in parallel with the reciprocal regulation of their metabolism and signaling pathways.
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Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) with diverse activities, is a common denominator in several neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Orthologs of TDP-43 exist from mammals to invertebrates, but their functions in lower organisms remain poorly understood. Here we systematically studied mutant Caenorhabditis elegans lacking the nematode TDP-43 ortholog, TDP-1. To understand the global gene expression regulation induced by the loss of tdp-1, the C. elegans transcriptomes were compared between the N2 WT animals and the tdp-1(ok803lf) mutant. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that the loss of TDP-1 altered expression of genes functioning in RNA processing and protein folding. These results suggest that the C. elegans TDP-1 as an RNA-processing protein may have a role in the regulation of protein homeostasis and aging.
Caenorhabditis elegans RNA-processing protein TDP-1 regulates protein homeostasis and life span.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to loss of locomotor function. Neuroplasticity of spinal circuitry underlies some functional recovery and therefore represents a therapeutic target to improve locomotor function following SCI. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating neuroplasticity below the lesion level are not fully understood. The present study performed a gene expression profiling in the rat lumbar spinal cord at 1 and 3 weeks after contusive SCI at T9. The below-level gene expression profiles were compared with those of animals that were subjected to treadmill locomotor training.
Molecular and cellular changes in the lumbar spinal cord following thoracic injury: regulation by treadmill locomotor training.
Sex, Age, Specimen part, TimeView Samples
A majority of metazoan mRNAs are under microRNA (miRNA)/Argonaute (Ago)-mediated control of RNA stability at the post-transcriptional level. Although the molecular mechanism of the miRNA-mediated repression of target mRNAs through Ago/TNRC6 pathway have been largely elucidated, however, the existence of alternative TNRC6-independent miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation pathway remains unknown. Here, we suggest that endogenous miRNAs (endo-miRNAs) can downregulate the target mRNAs via the alternative molecular pathway, Ago-associated UPF1/SMG7, core mediators of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Global analyses of mRNAs in a response to UPF1 RNA interference in miRNA-deficient cells reveal that 3'UTR-length-dependent mRNA decay by UPF1 requires endo-miRNA targeting via CUG motif. The repression of miRNA targets is more additively or synergistically accomplished by combination of Ago2 and UPF1 through UPF1-associated SMG7, recruiting CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex, in TNRC6-independent manner. We expect that the new miRNA-mediated mRNA decay pathway enables the miRNA targeting to become more predictable and expand the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network. Overall design: Examination of 11 different knockdown condition in HeLa cell type
UPF1/SMG7-dependent microRNA-mediated gene regulation.
Disease, Cell line, Treatment, SubjectView Samples
We studied the genomic locations of three key regulatory proteins (OCT4, NANOG and CTCF) in human and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells [see Series GSE20650]. To identify the conserved and unique human OCT4 targets, we performed an OCT4 RNAi knock-down experiment. We find that species-specific transposable elements have profoundly altered the transcriptional circuitry of pluripotent stem cells.
Transposable elements have rewired the core regulatory network of human embryonic stem cells.
Specimen part, Disease, Cell line, TimeView Samples
The hilum region of the mouse ovary, the transitional/junction area between OSE, mesothelium and tubal (oviductal) epithelium is identified as a previously unrecognized stem cell niche of the OSE. OSE cells with high ALDH1 activity have been predominantly detected in the hilum region by immunohistochemical staining.
Ovarian surface epithelium at the junction area contains a cancer-prone stem cell niche.
Age, Specimen partView Samples
In response to acute loss of the Ulp2 SUMO-specific protease, yeast become disomic for chromosome I (ChrI) and ChrXII. Here we report that ChrI disomy, which creates an adaptive advantage in part by increasing the dosage of the Ccr4 deadenylase, was eliminated by extended passaging. Loss of aneuploidy is often accompanied by mutations in essential SUMO-ligating enzymes, which reduced polySUMO-conjugate accumulation. The mRNA levels for almost all ribosomal proteins increases transiently upon initial loss of Ulp2, but elevated Ccr4 levels limit excess ribosome formation. Notably, extended passaging leads to increased levels of many small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) involved in ribosome biogenesis, and higher dosage of three linked ChrXII snoRNA genes suppressed ChrXII disomy in ulp2? cells. Our data reveal that aneuploidy allows rapid adaptation to Ulp2 loss, but long-term adaptation restores euploidy. Cellular evolution restores homeostasis through countervailing mutations in SUMO-modification pathways and regulatory shifts in ribosome biogenesis. Overall design: In these comparisons, the ulp2? cells either carried a WT ULP2 plasmid or empty vector and were passaged for 50 or 500 generations. mRNA profiles of them were generated by sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2500 .
Distinct adaptive mechanisms drive recovery from aneuploidy caused by loss of the Ulp2 SUMO protease.