Defective complex I (CI) is the most common type of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disease in patients, with an incidence of 1 in 5,000 live births. Complex I deficiency can present in infancy or early adulthood and shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including Leigh syndrome, (cardio)myopathy, hypotonia, stroke, ataxia and lactic acidosis. A number of critical processes and factors, like superoxide production, calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial morphology, are known to be involved in clinical CI deficiency, but not all factors are yet known and a complete picture is lacking.
Transcriptional changes in OXPHOS complex I deficiency are related to anti-oxidant pathways and could explain the disturbed calcium homeostasis.
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To gain insight in the kinetics and interplay of the predominant transcriptional responses of DNA damage signalling pathways in undifferentiated cells, mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to cisplatin at four different time points (2, 4, 8 and 24 hr) and concentrations (1, 2, 5 and 10 uM). RNA was isolated and subjected to genome-wide expression profiling.
A portrait of cisplatin-induced transcriptional changes in mouse embryonic stem cells reveals a dominant p53-like response.
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Islets are known to respond to changes in ambient glucose. To quantify the transcriptome-wide changes in ambient glucose, we compared transcriptome of islets exposed to low and high glucose. Overall design: Isolated islets from wild type male mice. Islets from adult males were pooled, cultured overnight in RPMI containing 11 mM glucose. The next day, all islets were starved in RPMI containing 2.8 mM glucose for 2 hours before stimulation with 2.8 mM glucose or 16.8 mM glucose for 12 hours. Islets were lysed in Trizol for RNA isolation and library construction.
The transcriptional landscape of mouse beta cells compared to human beta cells reveals notable species differences in long non-coding RNA and protein-coding gene expression.
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Rodent models are widely used to study diabetes. Yet, significant gaps remain in our understanding of mouse islet physiology. We generated comprehensive transcriptomes of mouse delta, beta and alpha cells using two separate triple transgenic mouse models generated for this purpose. This enables systematic comparison across thousands of genes between the three major endocrine cell types of the islets of Langerhans whose principal hormones control nutrient homeostasis. Overall design: FACS purified delta or alpha cells and beta cells from the same islets. Islets were isolated from triple transgenic offspring of a cross between mIns1-H2b-mCherry (Jax # 028589) and either Sst-Cre (delta) or Gcg-cre (alpha) cells and a floxed YFP allele to label delta or alpha cells, respectively. Islets from replicate groups of 10 to 12 triple transgenic animals for each group were pooled by sex to obtain sufficient material. Pooled islets were dissociated, sorted and collect in Trizol for RNA isolation and library construction.
Comprehensive alpha, beta and delta cell transcriptomes reveal that ghrelin selectively activates delta cells and promotes somatostatin release from pancreatic islets.
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The identification of HCC patients with different risks of recurrence by incorporating the status of clinicopathological features available at diagnosis and gene expression profiling associated with recurrence
Identification and validation of a novel gene signature associated with the recurrence of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
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The second trimester fetal transcriptome can be assessed based on cell-free RNA found within the amniotic fluid supernatant. The objective of this study was to compare the suitability of two technologies for profiling the human fetal transcriptome: RNA-Seq and expression microarray. Comparisons were based on total numbers of gene detected, rank-order gene expression, and functional genomic analysis.
RNA-Seq and expression microarray highlight different aspects of the fetal amniotic fluid transcriptome.
The objective of this study was to identify the tissue expression patterns and biological pathways enriched in term amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA by comparing functional genomic analyses of term and second-trimester amniotic fluid supernatants.
Global gene expression analysis of term amniotic fluid cell-free fetal RNA.
The objective of this study was to identify the tissue expression patterns and biological pathways enriched in term cord blood fetal RNA of obese women compared to lean
Assessing the fetal effects of maternal obesity via transcriptomic analysis of cord blood: a prospective case-control study.
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Amniotic fluid (AF) is a complex biological material that provides a unique window into the developing human. Residual AF supernatant contains cell-free fetal RNA. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the AF core transcriptome by identifying the transcripts ubiquitously present in the AF supernatant of euploid midtrimester fetuses.
The amniotic fluid transcriptome: a source of novel information about human fetal development.