Objectives: To identify similarities and differences in gene expression data in the MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways and to determine how histone modification affects these same pathways.
Regulation of gene expression by PI3K in mouse growth plate chondrocytes.
No sample metadata fieldsView Samples
Objective: Physical exercise and vitamin E are considered effective treatments of nonalcoholic fatty liver and other metabolic diseases. However, vitamin E has also been shown to interfere with the adaptation to exercise training, in particular for the skeletal muscle. Here, we studied the hypothesis that vitamin E also interferes with the metabolic adaptation of the liver to acute exercise.
A Vitamin E-Enriched Antioxidant Diet Interferes with the Acute Adaptation of the Liver to Physical Exercise in Mice.
Sex, Specimen partView Samples
A recent two-year NTP cancer bioassay showed a marked increase in the incidence of malignant mesothelioma arising from the tunica vaginalis in male Fischer 344/N rats exposed to Vinylidene chloride (VDC). Aged male F344/N rats are prone to developing spontaneous peritoneal mesotheliomas, which also arise predominantly from the tunica vaginalis of the testes. A definitive mechanism for the observed increased incidence in VDC-exposed rats is unknown. Investigation of the molecular alterations that occur in mesotheliomas from vehicle control and VDC-exposed rats may provide insight into their pathogenesis, as well enable a better understanding regarding the mechanisms underlying chemically induced mesothelioma in rodents. Mesothelial cell function represents a complex interplay of pathways related to host defense mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Global gene expression profiles of spontaneous mesotheliomas from vehicle control male F344/N rats from various two-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassays were compared to mesotheliomas from VDC-exposed rats to characterize the molecular features that are present in mesotheliomas from VDC-exposed animals, and to elucidate tumor-specific gene expression profiles. The resulting gene expression pattern showed that mesotheliomas from VDC-exposed animals are genomically very different from spontaneous tumors; while both tumor types are characterized by alterations in gene expression associated with carcinogenic pathways (oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, growth factors, etc.), mesotheliomas from VDC-exposed animals are associated with increased dysreguation of immune pathways and inflammatory mediators. Alterations in these pathways may suggest a pro-inflammatory and immune dysfunction signature as one mechanism in the observed increased incidence of these tumors in VDC-exposed animals.
Spontaneous mesotheliomas in F344/N rats are characterized by dysregulation of cellular growth and immune function pathways.
The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for luminal cell differentiation during mammary gland development and critical for formation of the luminal subtypes of breast cancer. Ectopic expression of GATA3 promoted global alterations of the transcriptome of basal triple-negative breast cancer cells resulting in molecular and cellular changes associated with a more differentiated, luminal tumor subtype and a concomitant reduction in primary tumor growth, lung metastasis, and macrophage recruitment at the metastatic site. Importantly, we demonstrate that the inhibition of metastases by GATA3 results from the suppression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression, a metastasis promoting matrix protein that affects cell proliferation, cross-linking of extracellular collagen types, and establishment of the metastatic niche.
GATA3 inhibits lysyl oxidase-mediated metastases of human basal triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Cell lineView Samples
Vinylidene Chloride has been widely used in the production of plastics and flame retardants. Exposure of B6C3F1 to VDC in the 2-year National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity bioassay resulted in a dose-dependent increase in renal cell hyperplasias, adenomas, and carcinomas (RCCs). Global gene expression analysis showed overrepresentation of pathways associated with chronic xenobiotic and oxidative stress in RCCs from VDC-exposed B6C3F1 mice, as well as cMyc overexpression and dysregulation of Tp53 cell cycle checkpoint and DNA damage repair pathways. Trend analysis comparing RCC, VDC-exposed kidney, and vehicle control kidney showed a conservation of pathway dysregulation in terms of overrepresentation of xenobiotic and oxidative stress, and DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint pathways in both VDC-exposed kidney and RCC, suggesting that these mechanisms play a role in the development of RCC in VDC-exposed mice.
Renal Cell Carcinomas in Vinylidene Chloride-exposed Male B6C3F1 Mice Are Characterized by Oxidative Stress and TP53 Pathway Dysregulation.
Specimen partView Samples
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the risk factors of human HCC are well known, the molecular characterization of this disease is complex, and treatment options in general remain poor. The use of rodent models to study human cancer has been extensively pursued both through genetically engineered rodents and rodent models used in carcinogenicity and toxicology studies. In particular, the B6C3F1 mouse used in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year bioassay has been used to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of environmental and occupational chemicals, and other compounds. The high incidence of spontaneous HCC in the B6C3F1 mouse has challenged its use as a model for chemically induced HCC in terms of relevance to the human disease. Using global gene expression profiling, we identify the dysregulation of several mediators similarly altered in human HCC, including re-expression of fetal oncogenes, upregulation of protooncogenes, downregulation of tumor suppressor genes, and abnormal expression of cell cycle mediators, growth factors, apoptosis regulators, and angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling factors. Although important differences in etiology and pathogenesis remain between human and mouse HCC, there are important similarities in global gene expression and the types of signaling networks dysregulated in mouse and human HCC. These data provide further relevance for the use of this model in hazard identification of compounds with potential human carcinogenicity risk, and may help in better understanding mechanisms of tumorigenesis due to chemical exposure in the NTP 2-year carcinogenicity bioassay.
Global gene profiling of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma in B6C3F1 mice: similarities in the molecular landscape with human liver cancer.
Specimen partView Samples
Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in people. There are several chemically induced and genetically modified mouse models used to study lung cancer. We hypothesized that spontaneous murine (B6C3F1) lung tumors can serve as a model to study human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: RNA was extracted from untreated 2-year-old B6C3F1 mouse spontaneous lung (SL) tumors and age-matched normal lung tissue from a chronic inhalation NTP study. Global gene expression analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 GeneChip arrays. After data normalization, for each probe set, pairwise comparisons between groups were made using a bootstrap t-test while controlling the mixed directional false discovery rate (mdFDR) to generate a differential gene expression list. IPA, KEGG, and EASE software tools were used to evaluate the overrepresented cancer genes and pathways. Results: MAPK and TGF-beta pathways were overrepresented within the dataset. Almost all of the validated genes by quantitative real time RT-PCR had comparable directional fold changes with the microarray data. The candidate oncogenes included Kras, Braf, Raf1, Id2, Hmga1, Cks1b, and Foxf1. The candidate tumor suppressor genes included Rb1, Cdkn2a, Hnf4a, Tcf21, Ptprd, Hpgd, Hopx, Ogn, Id4, Hoxa5, Smad6, Smad7, Zbtb16, Cyr61, Dusp4, and Ifi16. In addition, several genes important in lung development were also differentially expressed, such as Smad6, Hopx, Sox4, Sox9 and Mycn. Conclusion: In this study, we have demonstrated that several cancer genes and signaling pathways relevant for human NSCLC were similarly altered in spontaneous murine lung tumors.
Differential transcriptomic analysis of spontaneous lung tumors in B6C3F1 mice: comparison to human non-small cell lung cancer.
Disease, Disease stageView Samples
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine and today is used as an herbal supplement for various indications such as improving neural function, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. As part of the herbal supplement industry, these compounds are largely unregulated, and may be consumed in large concentrations over extended periods of time. This is of particular concern, because the long-term effects in terms of toxicity and carcinogenicity data is lacking for many herbal products, including GBE. The 2-year B6C3F1 mouse carcinogenicity bioassay indicated a marked dose-related increase in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development associated with exposure to GBE. We have shown that the mechanism of this increase in tumorigenesis is related to a marked increase in the incidence of -catenin mutation, and report a novel mechanism of constitutive -catenin activation through post-translational modification leading to constitutive Wnt signaling and unregulated growth signaling and oncogenesis. Furthermore, using global gene expression profiling, we show that GBE-induced HCC exhibit overrepresentation of gene categories associated with human cancer and HCC signaling including upregulation of relevant oncogenes and suppression of critical tumor suppressor genes, as well as chronic oxidative stress, a known inducer of calpain-mediated degradation and promoter of hepatocarcinogenesis in humans. These data provide a molecular mechanism to GBE-induced HCC in B6C3F1 mice that is relevant to human cancer, and provides relevant molecular data that will provide the groundwork for further risk assessment of unregulated compounds, including herbal supplements.
Hepatocellular carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice treated with Ginkgo biloba extract for two years differ from spontaneous liver tumors in cancer gene mutations and genomic pathways.
Specimen partView Samples
We performed gene expression microarray analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies from normal glucose tolerant subjects and type 2 diabetes subjects obtained during a 60 min bicycle ergometer exercise and the 180 min of recovery phase
Type 2 diabetes alters metabolic and transcriptional signatures of glucose and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery.
The cell of origin of hepatoblastoma in humans and mice (HB) is unknown; it has been hypothesized to be a transformed hepatocyte, an oval cell, or a multipotent hepatic progenitor cell. In mice, the current dogma is that HBs arise within hepatocellular neoplasms as a result of further transformation from a neoplastic hepatocyte. However, there is little evidence in the literature to support a direct relationship between these two cell types. Furthermore, due to differences in etiology and development of hepatoblastoma between mice and humans, many have questioned the relevance of these tumors in hazard identification and risk assessment. In order to better understand the relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma, as well as better determine the molecular similarities between mouse and human hepatoblastoma, global gene expression analysis and targeted Hras and Ctnnb1 mutation analysis were performed using concurrent hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and associated normal adjacent liver (in the context of vehicle control liver) samples from a recent National Toxicology Program chronic bioassay. The data from this study provides a better understanding of the origins of hepatoblastoma in the B6C3F1 mice and the relevance of mouse hepatoblastoma to humans when considering chemical exposures of potential human cancer risk.
Genomic Profiling Reveals Unique Molecular Alterations in Hepatoblastomas and Adjacent Hepatocellular Carcinomas in B6C3F1 Mice.
Specimen partView Samples